Novel X-ray device developed

Nov 24, 2013
Nathan Powers, member of a research team that developed a laser-driven X-ray device, shows the accelerator used generate synchrotron X-rays. Credit: Greg Nathan, University Communications, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using a compact but powerful laser, a research team at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln has developed a new way to generate synchrotron X-rays.

Although the high quality of synchrotron X-rays make them ideal for research ranging from the structure of matter to advanced medical images, access to the technology has been limited until now. Most traditional synchrotron X-ray devices are gigantic and costly, available only at a few sites around the world.

As reported in this week's issue of the top-ranked optics journal Nature Photonics, researchers at UNL's Extreme Light Laboratory developed a novel method to generate research-quality X-rays using a "tabletop" laser.

"Our hope is that this new technology will lead to applications that benefit both science and society," said Nathan Powers, a Ph.D. student and first author of the journal article.

Physics professor Donald Umstadter, director of the Extreme Light Laboratory, led the research project. He compared the synchrotron X-ray breakthrough to the development of personal computers, giving more people access to computing power once available only via large and costly mainframe computers. Shrinking components of advanced laser-based technology will increase the feasibility of producing high-quality X-rays in medical and university research laboratories, which in turn could lead to new applications for the X-rays.

Because the new X-ray device could be small enough to fit in a hospital or on a truck, it could lead to more widespread applications for advanced X-ray technology, UNL scientists said. New applications might include Homeland Security detecting nuclear materials concealed within a shielded container; doctors finding cancerous tumors at earlier stages; or scientists studying extremely fast reactions that occur too rapidly for observation with conventional X-rays.

Ever since synchrotron X-ray light sources were developed more than 60 years ago, they have grown in size. Some now equal the size of a college campus, with a cost in the hundreds of millions of dollars. These huge machines continue to be built, most recently in Australia and Brazil.

Like supercomputers, they provide scientists with the most advanced research capabilities, yet they are not feasible for most practical applications. Though synchrotron X-rays result in lower doses of radiation as well as high-quality images, the tens of thousands of compact X-ray devices currently in operation in hospitals or at ports worldwide produce lower quality X-rays.

In traditional synchrotron machines, electrons are accelerated to extremely high energy and then made to change direction periodically, leading them to emit energy at X-ray wavelength. At the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, the electrons circle near the speed of light in a storage ring of 844 meters in circumference. Magnets are used to change the direction of the electrons and produce X-rays.

Pursuing an alternative approach in the recent experiments, the UNL team replaced both the electron accelerator and the magnets with laser light. They first focused their laser beam onto a gas jet, creating a beam of relativistic electrons. They then focused another laser beam onto the accelerated electron beam. This rapidly vibrated the electrons, which in turn caused them to emit a bright burst of synchrotron X-rays—a process referred to as Compton scattering. Remarkably, the light's photon energy was increased during this process by a million-fold. And yet, the combined length of the accelerator and synchrotron was less than the size of a dime.

"The X-rays that were previously generated with compact lasers lacked several of the distinguishing characteristics of synchrotron light, such as a relatively pure and tunable color spectrum, " Umstadter said. "Instead, those X-rays resembled the 'white light' emitted by the sun."

The new laser-driven device produces X-rays over a much larger range of photon energies, extending to the energy of nuclear gamma rays. Even fewer conventional X-ray sources are capable of producing such high photon energy. Key to the breakthrough was finding a way to collide the two micro-thin beams—the scattering and the laser-accelerated electron beam.

"Our aim and timing needed to be as good as that of two sharpshooters attempting to collide their bullets in midair," Umstadter said. "Colliding our 'bullets' might have even been harder, since they travel at nearly the speed of light."

Explore further: Seven things you may not know about X-rays

More information: Quasi-monoenergetic and tunable X-rays from a laser-driven Compton light source, dx.doi.or/10.1038/nphoton2013.314

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hudres
1.1 / 5 (7) Nov 24, 2013
While this may be a very clever and useful device, it is totally inappropriate to to suggest that it produces synchrotron radiation. Synchrotron radiation comes from bending of electron (or proton) beans in a magnet. If there is no magnet, then it is not synchrotron radiation. It is more properly described as a Compton X-ray source. Compton x-rays arise from the collision of electrons and photons when the energies are properly matched. Compton x-rays and synchrotron x-rays are not the same.

It is difficult to treat this seriously if the inventors and reporters cannot get simple basic physics facts correct. Fact checking please!!!!!!!
Eikka
1.7 / 5 (6) Nov 24, 2013
It is difficult to treat this seriously if the inventors and reporters cannot get simple basic physics facts correct. Fact checking please!!!!!!!


It says at the end as the title of the article: "Quasi-monoenergetic and tunable X-rays from a laser-driven Compton light source"

Sean_W
1 / 5 (7) Nov 24, 2013
Maybe they should call them 'X-rays of high quality to the extent that they are about equal to synchrotron X-rays'. I'm told that king cobras are not true cobras yet they keep the name to this day. Sometimes a bit of inaccuracy is preferable to drowning a reader in details. Perhaps they will soon put a "1)" before the current definition of "synchrotron X-rays" and then include a "2)" definition for X-rays of similar quality. Won't that be nice?
Zephir_fan
Nov 24, 2013
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
ForFreeMinds
1 / 5 (4) Nov 25, 2013
I find this to be a fantastic advance. Replacing football field sized instruments with their table/top sized setup is a huge savings. That it produces narrower spectrum (and tunable as well!) of x-ray radiation, will improve the quality of images produced, for research or medical treatment is worth giving thanks for. Thank you Mr. Powers and team. I hope your invention is well rewarded, for what it brings to us.