Fossil of largest known platypus discovered in Australia

Nov 04, 2013
This image shows Obdurodon tharalkooschild, a middle to late Cenozoic giant toothed platypus from the the World Heritage fossil deposits of Riversleigh, Australia. At about one meter (more than 3 feet) in length and with powerful teeth (inset: the holotype, a first lower molar), it would have been capable of killing much larger prey, such as lungfish and even small turtles, than its much smaller living relative. Credit: Peter Schouten

No living mammal is more peculiar than the platypus. It has a broad, duck-like bill, thick, otter-like fur, and webbed, beaver-like feet. The platypus lays eggs rather than gives birth to live young, its snout is covered with electroreceptors that detect underwater prey, and male platypuses have a venomous spur on their hind foot. Until recently, the fossil record indicated that the platypus lineage was unique, with only one species inhabiting the Earth at any one time. This picture has changed with the publication of a new study in the latest issue of the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology that describes a new, giant species of extinct platypus that was a side-branch of the platypus family tree.

The new species, named Obdurodon tharalkooschild, is based on a single tooth from the famous Riversleigh World Heritage Area of northwest Queensland. While many of Riversleigh's fossil deposits are now being radiometrically dated, the precise age of the particular deposit that produced this giant platypus is in doubt but is likely to be between 15 and 5 million years old.

"Monotremes (platypuses and echidnas) are the last remnant of an ancient radiation of mammals unique to the southern continents. A new platypus species, even one that is highly incomplete, is a very important aid in developing understanding about these fascinating mammals," said PhD candidate Rebecca Pian, lead author of the study.

Based on the size of tooth, it is estimated that this would have been nearly a meter (more than three feet) long, twice the size of the modern platypus. The bumps and ridges on the teeth also provide clues about what this species likely ate.

This is the first lower molar of the new giant platypus, Obdurodon tharalkooschild. Credit: R. Pian.

"Like other platypuses, it was probably a mostly aquatic mammal, and would have lived in and around the freshwater pools in the forests that covered the Riversleigh area millions of years ago," said Dr. Suzanne Hand of the University of New South Wales, a co-author of the study. "Obdurodon tharalkooschild was a very large platypus with well-developed teeth, and we think it probably fed not only on crayfish and other freshwater crustaceans, but also on small vertebrates including the lungfish, frogs, and small turtles that are preserved with it in the Two Tree Site fossil deposit."

The oldest platypus fossils come from 61 million-year-old rocks in southern South America. Younger platypus fossils are known from Australia in what is now the Simpson Desert. Before the discovery of Obdurodon tharalkooschild, these fossils suggested that platypuses became smaller and reduced the size of their teeth through time. The modern platypus completely lacks teeth as an adult and instead bears horny pads in its mouth. The name Obdurodon comes from the Greek for "lasting (obdurate) tooth" and was coined to distinguish extinct toothed platypuses from the essentially toothless modern species.

"Discovery of this new species was a shock to us because prior to this, the suggested that the evolutionary tree of platypuses was relatively linear one," said Dr. Michael Archer of the University of New South Wales, a co-author of the study. "Now we realize that there were unanticipated side branches on this tree, some of which became gigantic."

This shows richly fossiliferous freshwater limestones in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area. Credit: M. Archer

The specific epithet of the new , tharalkooschild, honors an Indigenous Australian creation story about the origin of the platypus. In the Dreamtime, Tharalkoo was a head-strong girl duck inclined to disobey her parents. Her parents warned her not to swim downriver because Bigoon the Water-rat would have his wicked way with her. Scoffing, she disobeyed her parents and was ravished by Bigoon. By the time Tharalkoo escaped and returned to her family, the other girl ducks were laying eggs, so she did the same. But instead of a fluffy little duckling emerging from her egg, her child was an amazing chimera that had the bill, webbed hind feet, and egg-laying habit of a duck, along with the fur and front feet of a rodent—the first Platypus.

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More information: Pian, R., M. Archer, and S.J. Hand. 2013. A new, giant platypus, Obdurodon tharalkooschild, sp. nov. (Monotremata, Ornithorhynchidae), from the Riversleigh World Heritage Area, Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 33(6):1-5.

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User comments : 7

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verkle
1 / 5 (9) Nov 04, 2013
Based on a single tooth?
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.5 / 5 (8) Nov 04, 2013
Based on a single tooth?
If one your molars was twice it's size dont you think your head would have to be twice as big to accommodate it?
RealScience
5 / 5 (6) Nov 04, 2013
@verkle - the article clearly says that the estimated size is an estimate, and that the estimate is based on the size of the tooth.

Based on the size of tooth, it is estimated that this extinct species would have been nearly a meter (more than three feet) long, twice the size of the modern platypus


Since they have found more complete fossils of other toothed platypuses before, and since those show good correlation between tooth size and skeleton size, the odds are that their estimate is reasonably close.
Sinister1811
2.6 / 5 (5) Nov 04, 2013
are the last remnant of an ancient radiation of mammals unique to the southern continents.


Wouldn't egg-laying have been an ancient trait? Seen as though the ancestors of mammals were reptiles, the earliest mammals are thought to have laid eggs as well.
hemitite
2.3 / 5 (6) Nov 05, 2013
Based on a single tooth?
If one your molars was twice it's size dont you think your head would have to be twice as big to accommodate it?

It could have had buck teeth like a beaver. ;o)
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.6 / 5 (5) Nov 05, 2013
Based on a single tooth?
If one your molars was twice it's size dont you think your head would have to be twice as big to accommodate it?

It could have had buck teeth like a beaver. ;o)
Why yes I believe I saw one once in captivity
http://en.m.wikip...llie.JPG

DarkHorse66
5 / 5 (1) Nov 08, 2013
I can only imagine the size of the corresponding venom spur (if this ancestor had one) and would hate to run into it. http://www.austra...ypus.php
What this article does not mention is that this animal has been given a nickname as well:
http://www.bbc.co...24807557
Wonderfully apt, compared to the size of the modern animal....

Cheers, DH66

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