The world's first interferometric image at 500 GHz with ALMA Band 8 receivers

Sep 02, 2013
Planetary Nebula NGC 6302. The right image is the composite image of ALMA Band 8 (yellow) and the Hubble Space Telescope (gray). Upper left image is the whole view of NGC 6302 taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, and yellow rectangle corresponds to the right image area. Lower left panel shows the line profile of atomic carbon. Credit: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

ALMA opens another window to the universe in the 500 GHz frequency band. Astronomers successfully synthesized the distribution of atomic carbon around a planetary nebula NGC 6302 in test observations with the ALMA Band 8 receiver, developed by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). This is the first 500 GHz band astronomical image captured by a radio interferometer with unprecedentedly high resolution.

ALMA has 10 receiver bands to cover a wide range of observing frequency. All antennas are equipped with dedicated receivers for each frequency band. NAOJ assumes the development of three bands: Band 4 (receiving frequency: 125 to 163 GHz, millimeter-wave); Band 8 (385 to 500 GHz, submillimeter-wave); and Band 10 (787 to 950 GHz, Terahertz-wave).

The frequency band observable with the Band 8 receiver covers a wide range of radio emission lines from various atoms and molecules. Among them, one of the most attractive targets for many astronomers is the emission from atomic carbon at 492 GHz. What can we expect to see from it?The main component of the cosmic gas is hydrogen. The abundance of carbon is only 1/3000 of that of hydrogen, although carbon is the third most in the universe. The cosmic gas can be classified into three groups by its temperature and density; "" (number density of plasma particles: 0.01 per 1 cm3, temperature: several million degrees Celsius), "atomic cloud" (number density of atom: 10 per 1 cm3, temperature: -160 degrees Celsius), and "molecular cloud" (number density of molecule: 10000 per 1 cm3, temperature: - 260 degrees Celsius). Dense regions of atomic cloud grow into molecular cloud, and molecular cloud with increased density becomes a seedbed of stars. On the other hand, molecules composing molecular cloud dissociate into atoms when exposed to intense ultraviolet light. Detailed study of the distributions of atomic cloud and gives us insights into the evolution of cosmic gas. In particular, observation of carbon atom is important not only in studying the distribution and characteristics of atomic cloud, but also in exploring chemistry in the universe  because various complex molecules are formed from chemical reactions between carbon atom and other atoms such as oxygen and hydrogen.

So far, observations in the 500 GHz band, including emission line from cosmic carbon atom, have been made with single dish radio telescopes such as the University of Tokyo's Mt. Fuji Submillimeter Telescope and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The typical spatial resolution of those observations is 15 arcseconds or larger (1 arcsecond corresponds to 1/3600 of 1 degree), which is far worse than the resolution of existing 8-meter class optical telescopes (0.1 arcsecond). ALMA is the first radio interferometer which allows observations in this frequency range with remarkably improved resolution compared to single dish telescopes. This time, the Band 8 receivers were installed in five 7-m antennas developed by Japan and achieved a high resolution of 3.5 arcseconds. By installing the receiver into all the ALMA antennas, the resolution becomes even better by 400 times. Astronomers around the world have high expectations for observations with Band 8.

Yutaro Sekimoto, an associate professor at NAOJ and the leader of the Band 8 receiver development team at the NAOJ's Advanced Technology Center says "I deeply appreciate long and hard efforts of all staff to realize ALMA observation of carbon atom. I expect further ALMA observations will unveil the evolution process of interstellar matter." Naohisa Sato, a member of the development team, says "We went through difficult times during receiver production phase. We made a number of adjustments and replacements to achieve required performance for every receiver. I am really happy with this successful result."

NGC 6302 is a , which is in the final stage of the life of a star with a mass several times that of the Sun. Visible light image shows a bipolar shape of gas ejected from the dying star. ALMA with the Band 8 receivers targeted at the center of the nebula and revealed that the distribution of carbon atom is concentrated in a small part, which is similar to a dust and gas disk around the central star that has been found by previous observations with other telescopes. Further observations of carbon atom with better resolution will give us more detailed view of the chemical environment in the nebula.

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cantdrive85
1 / 5 (15) Sep 02, 2013
Why does this "explosion" propagate in this bipolar manner? Why is nearly all the carbon located as it is, right at the pinch point?

Seems a more legitimate analysis to acknowledge this is a Z-pinch along a cosmical birkeland current. No magic need be conjured.
IMP-9
4.8 / 5 (9) Sep 02, 2013
Cantdrive why don't you actually look into the papers involved before declaring an unilateral victory for completely baseless claims? Perhaps even model your hypothesis to show it could produce these observations? No that sounds to much like science.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (8) Sep 03, 2013
Why does this "explosion" propagate in this bipolar manner?


It is not an explosion, it is a steady flow. The rotation of the star partly confines the hydrogen through the magnetic field.

Why is nearly all the carbon located as it is, right at the pinch point?


It isn't, it is in a broad band well out from the star. The lobes at 20km/s on the histogram show a rotating disc with an orbital velocity similar to Mars.

Seems a more legitimate analysis to acknowledge this is a Z-pinch along a cosmical birkeland current. No magic need be conjured.


That isn't an "analysis" at all, it is blind faith. If there were any currents flowing, they should produce observable effects like polaristion of recombination emissions. Nothing like that is ever seen, your 'magical' currents do not exist.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (12) Sep 03, 2013
Fleet, your analysis is based upon guesses from "theoreticians who have never seen a plasma in a laboratory. Many of them still believe in formulae which we know from laboratory experiments to be wrong..." based upon "basic concepts on which the theories
are founded, are not applicable to the condition prevailing in cosmos. They
are " generally accepted " by most theoreticians, they are developed with the
most sophisticated mathematical methods and it is only the plasma itself
which does not " understand ", how beautiful the theories are and absolutely
refuses to obey them."

I doubt fleet will stop having faith in these guesses, it's how the dogmatically religious operate. It's obvious from your "expectations" of what you think those currents should "do" that you still believe in those guesses we know are wrong.
no fate
4.5 / 5 (8) Sep 03, 2013
Cantdrive why don't you actually look into the papers involved before declaring an unilateral victory for completely baseless claims? Perhaps even model your hypothesis to show it could produce these observations? No that sounds to much like science.


If it was actually possible to produce a z pinch in a lab that remotely resembled what the EU claims are astrophysical representations of them, there would be at least one image of it on the net.

ALMA is a great tool for the examination of force to structure relationships, particle reactions and overall compositional elements. It's the Hubble for the non visual portions of the EM spectrum.
stellar-demolitionist
4.7 / 5 (6) Sep 03, 2013
Fleet, your analysis is based upon guesses from "theoreticians who have never seen a plasma in a laboratory.


Theory is NOT guesses.

Theory is a system used to understand observation and experiment.

Simple 1D applications of basic theory do miss many aspects of real astrophysical objects and numerical experiments using the theory in full dimensionality are resource constrained. This I suspect accounts for many of the "surprises" reported by observers.

Magnetic fields almost certainly involved in the bipolar outflow from AGB stars that precede the lighting up of the PNe, but we can be reasonably certain that they are not the result of a Z-pinch in some "Galactic Ignition Facitilty."

I'll leave the unreason to others and their narrow hero worship.
Q-Star
4.2 / 5 (10) Sep 03, 2013
If it was actually possible to produce a z pinch in a lab that remotely resembled what the EU claims are astrophysical representations of them, there would be at least one image of it on the net.

ALMA is a great tool for the examination of force to structure relationships, particle reactions and overall compositional elements. It's the Hubble for the non visual portions of the EM spectrum.


Well said, and spot on and it bears repeating verbatim:

If it was actually possible to produce a z pinch in a lab that remotely resembled what the EU claims are astrophysical representations of them, there would be at least one image of it on the net.

ALMA is a great tool for the examination of force to structure relationships, particle reactions and overall compositional elements. It's the Hubble for the non visual portions of the EM spectrum.


These are great tools, and they are allowing us to see things ya that can not be seen in ANY Earth bound laboratory,,,,,
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (13) Sep 03, 2013
If it was actually possible to produce a z pinch in a lab that remotely resembled what the EU claims are astrophysical representations of them, there would be at least one image of it on the net.

Oddly, if you look for about .24 seconds via Google, you can find a few;
http://epsppd.epf...09pr.pdf
There is are some nice images of a z-pinch at end of paper, and it looks remarkably like the nebula above.

Here is an aluminum can that's been "pinched" using the same type of mechanism;
http://en.wikiped...hite.jpg

Here Thornhill's POV, his peer reviewed paper is linked at bottom of page;
http://www.holosc...coded-2/

cantdrive85
1 / 5 (13) Sep 03, 2013
Well said, and spot on and it bears repeating verbatim:

Then I posted this;
http://epsppd.epf...09pr.pdf

You probably wish you had not shown your ignorance so quickly. You need a pedaoraectomy.
shavera
4.6 / 5 (9) Sep 03, 2013
Well in MY theory of magical unicornism, what you're ACTUALLY seeing is two equal and opposite unicorn farts. As any child knows, unicorns fart rainbows, and you can clearly see the bowed structure there which conclusively proves my theory.

Anyone who says otherwise is either brainwashed by the so-called "physicists" what with their years of training and observations and research, or by the equally terrible "anti-physicists" believing in their internet-driven mythologies and publications. They're all wrong.
rug
2.2 / 5 (10) Sep 03, 2013
two equal and opposite unicorn farts

HAHAHA Priceless!
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Sep 03, 2013
"Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn't really do it, they just saw something. It seemed obvious to them after a while. That's because they were able to connect experiences they've had and synthesize new things."
Steve Jobs

Such is the experience of an experimental plasma physicist when he looks up.

"The only thing worse than being blind is having sight but no vision."
Helen Keller
shavera
5 / 5 (3) Sep 03, 2013
well you feel free to be creative cantdrive. Go ahead and write SciFi, plenty of great minds have done so. The rest of us will go on performing research and doing experiments and trying to understand our universe and not just bucking the system for screw-the-system's sake.
Q-Star
4.1 / 5 (9) Sep 03, 2013
Well said, and spot on and it bears repeating verbatim:


You probably wish you had not shown your ignorance so quickly. You need a pedaoraectomy.


So these great objects we see in the universe are being produced in labs, eh? I see why ya don't drive very well. Did ya read the paper ya linked? I didn't have to, it's been posted a dozen times before, and just as time,,, it has nothing to do with the phenomena discussed on this site. But in case ya are too very busy to read your own evidence. I'm sure this is exactly what we're seeing with our astronomical tools.

a result of electrical breakdown of carbon filled agar-agar fibres.


Let me conclude in saying (I'm quoting an impeccable source),,,,,,

The upper mentioned difference between the magnetic and kinetic pressure is not well understood. This question needs further experimental and theoretical studies.


Not even a nice try, pretty lame actually.
no fate
4 / 5 (4) Sep 03, 2013
I have seen the can, did you happen to read how they made it?. Did you read the paper in your first link? They describe the process completely and mention the "preliminary formed neck" three times. They also mention the current strength generating the field required to direct the plasma. They manipulated the plasma several different ways to make the "pinch". This experiment was set up to measure the energies in a pinch they had to artificially create. Not to see "if" a pinch would form.

Where is the low potential in your galactic circuit?
Where are the parallel currents required to form the pinch?

Thornhill's hypothesis on SN1987a is half right.

"With a strong enough current, the plasma formed by the discharge electromagnetically "pinches" into a string of sausages, donuts and plasma instabilities, along the z-axis." -WT

This happens when plasma in a field starts to generate it's own, then react to other fields formed by other instabilities while following pre-existing flux.

barakn
5 / 5 (5) Sep 03, 2013
If it was actually possible to produce a z pinch in a lab that remotely resembled what the EU claims are astrophysical representations of them, there would be at least one image of it on the net.

Oddly, if you look for about .24 seconds via Google, you can find a few;
http://epsppd.epf...09pr.pdf
There is are some nice images of a z-pinch at end of paper, and it looks remarkably like the nebula above.

No. Your z-pinch images all show a column-shaped structure (a filament if you will) with a constriction. The nebula shows two symmetrically opposed fan structures with absolutely no hint of the ends of the fans stopping their expansion and assuming a parallel, column-like configuration. Once again a classic case of cantdrive85 seeing what he wants to see, not what's actually there.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Sep 03, 2013
well you feel free to be creative cantdrive. Go ahead and write SciFi, plenty of great minds have done so. The rest of us will go on performing research and doing experiments and trying to understand our universe and not just bucking the system for screw-the-system's sake.


"It is the tension between creativity and skepticism that has produced the stunning and unexpected findings of science." Carl Sagan
shavera
5 / 5 (4) Sep 03, 2013
"It is the tension between creativity and skepticism that has produced the stunning and unexpected findings of science." Carl Sagan


"You miss 100% of the shots you don't take."
- Wayne Gretzky
- Michael Scott

What are we doing here, playing with quotes or talking about science?
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Sep 03, 2013
But in case ya are too very busy to read your own evidence. I'm sure this is exactly what we're seeing with our astronomical tools.


a result of electrical breakdown of carbon filled agar-agar fibres.


Are you suggesting carbon wouldn't be available?
https://crppwww.e..._015.pdf
There's that z-pinch again, oddly that z-pinch looks remarkably like this one;
http://www.spacet...po9738a/
GSwift7
3.7 / 5 (3) Sep 03, 2013
cantdrive, as usual, you are correct that EM forces are playing an important role here, but also as usual, you are ignorant of the facts regarding those EM forces.

First, about 1/4 of planetary nebulea are shperical, which doesn't support your zpinch idea. In fact, most aren't even symmetrical.

Second, the lobes pictured above are composed of several distinct parts, formed at different times. Not all of these parts are ionized, so they wouldn't be conductive or magnetically effected by your current.

Third, the parts that are ionized come later in the formation of the nubula, so the parts that get it started aren't electrically conductive or magnetic. The ionization is caused later, by UV radiation from the central star.

Fourth, the outward velocity of the ionized particles has been measured to match exactly with solar wind acceleration. If any other force was also accelerating it, it wouldn't match solar wind acceleration.
Q-Star
4.6 / 5 (9) Sep 03, 2013
But in case ya are too very busy to read your own evidence. I'm sure this is exactly what we're seeing with our astronomical tools.


a result of electrical breakdown of carbon filled agar-agar fibres.


Are you suggesting carbon wouldn't be available?


I'm suggesting the agar might be lacking,,,,, and the special container, and the engineers to assembly the pieces, and the scientists to turn the knobs up and down, and the grad student to turn the lights on it in morning,,,, other than all that,,,, yeppers, exactly the same thing as your lab guys did. .
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Sep 03, 2013
What do tokamaks provide, or any other lab experiment for that matter? Strangely, I don't see any LHC's in nature either, yet it supposedly will reveal the god bosom through collision. I can see why original thinkers don't make it through graduate programs as HA points out, they have to deal with dogmatic narrow minded professors such as ya self.
shavera
4.7 / 5 (6) Sep 03, 2013
I can see why original thinkers don't make it through graduate programs as HA points out, they have to deal with dogmatic narrow minded professors such as ya self.


Wah Wah, grad school physics is too hard, maybe I'll become an engineer instead and curse those dogmatic physics priests who were keeping their secrets from me.
Q-Star
4.6 / 5 (9) Sep 03, 2013
I can see why original thinkers don't make it through graduate programs as HA points out, they have to deal with dogmatic narrow minded professors such as ya self.


curse those dogmatic physics priests who were keeping their secrets from me.


Ya want to hear something that is truly sad & funny? On of the top guys in his pantheon of abused scientists is an unfortunate man named Stephen Crothers. (google him) He had the chance to work on his graduate studies under a professor who is maybe one of the 12 guys in modern astrophysics, Paul Davies.He was kicked out of the program because the professors & teaching staff had the temerity of not letting him interrupt every lecture, class, & student lab period he attended. The university he was attending had to get a restraining order against him. He's still trying to tell the world that the professors & scientists were jealous of his intellect & insights..It's funny, were it not for the great thing he threw away.
rug
2 / 5 (8) Sep 03, 2013
Wah Wah, grad school physics is too hard, maybe I'll become an engineer instead and curse those dogmatic physics priests who were keeping their secrets from me.

Hey, don't insult the rest of the us engineers. Not all of us are lost.
Captain Stumpy
1.4 / 5 (9) Sep 03, 2013

Hey, don't insult the rest of the us engineers. Not all of us are lost.


YEAH! my daughter actually sought out to become an electrical engineer!!!!
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (11) Sep 04, 2013
On of the top guys in his pantheon of abused scientists is an unfortunate man named Stephen Crothers. (google him)


Here's his home page.
http://www.sjcrot...dex.html

There's plenty there to peruse, one example of "relativist" obfuscation after another. I still haven't seen a relativist show where he is wrong, I don't think relativists are smart enough to know the foundation of their metaphysical mind games is built on lies.

cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Sep 04, 2013
First, about 1/4 of planetary nebulea are shperical, which doesn't support your zpinch idea. In fact, most aren't even symmetrical.

What aspect are we looking at the spherical nebula?

If this nebula;
http://nssdc.gsfc...bula.jpg

Second, the lobes pictured above are composed of several distinct parts, formed at different times.

That's your hypothesis
Not all of these parts are ionized, so they wouldn't be conductive or magnetically effected by your current.

Completely baseless. You're working with gaslight era guesses, it's the 21st century, catch up.
Third...

More of your hypothesis, the gaslight ones...
Fourth...

The "solar wind" is part of the electric discharge, no other forces are presumed.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (11) Sep 04, 2013
I can see why original thinkers don't make it through graduate programs as HA points out, they have to deal with dogmatic narrow minded professors such as ya self.


Wah Wah, grad school physics is too hard, maybe I'll become an engineer instead and curse those dogmatic physics priests who were keeping their secrets from me.

Theoretical physicists are engineering dropouts who couldn't handle the reality of actually having to produce something worthwhile.
no fate
4.3 / 5 (6) Sep 04, 2013
Cantdrive, your electric universe theory fails because it falls flat on it's face out of the gate, it's basis is that subatomic particles self organize. The laws of physics demonstrate this isn't so. Prattling on about plasma not obeying the equations is ironic coming from someone who claims it has properties that it doesn't. I have seen you make educated comments when an article falls into the EU arena but your refusal to acknowledge it's faults or digress when proven wrong makes you appear like a lunatic. If you aren't here to learn and just keep looking for the "i told you so" moments, what's the point?

I don't agree with the assumptions behind some of the observations, but my own have been wrong enough that if I am not sure, I check my references instead of spewing off about it.
GSwift7
3.9 / 5 (7) Sep 04, 2013
Cantdrive, your electric universe theory fails because it falls flat on it's face out of the gate,


I agree.

You know, it's not crazy to say that GR and the corresponding BB model, with their dark matter and dark energy, sounds fishy. That would place you in the company of a lot of respected scientists. HOWEVER, that doesn't mean you need to throw out an alternative. That especially doesn't mean that you should keep supporting an alternative that makes even less sense than GR and the BB. My advice would be to give up on EU/PC, and stop using outdated quotes that no longer apply (especially when you KNOW they don't apply any more).

PS, visible resemblance of things does not indicate related cause and effect. EU theory is like noticing that a big oozing skin boil looks a lot like a volcano, so they must both be caused by the same thing. Since you say volcanos are from electric discharge, then acne must be too. Is that what they call animal magnetism?
JohnGee
3.5 / 5 (8) Sep 04, 2013
GSwift7, He's going to get half way through that, realize you are making sense, and shut it out.
yep
1 / 5 (8) Sep 05, 2013
Whole bunch a self organizing going on out there.

http://plasma.phy...selforg/
http://iopscience...8/083024
http://plasma2.ss...HP99.pdf

EU theory is like a baby just opening its eyes, it has not had a chance to become.

We unwilling to give up the ghosts of our fathers cling to our truths.
rug
2.3 / 5 (9) Sep 05, 2013
Hey, look another troll....I wonder what this one is gonna start preaching.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Sep 05, 2013
Not too Swift,
It's obvious you didn't see HA's post from another thread inre to my "outdated quotes".
HA
Two contemporary papers bring us up to date on the apparent fact that not much has changed since Alfven gave that lecture ...

"Why Space Physics Needs to Go Beyond the MHD Box" (2004) and "Importance of Electric Fields in Modeling Space Plasmas" (2007) by George K Parks


Read those two papers swifty and then tell me how my quotes are dated...

cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Sep 05, 2013
Cantdrive, your electric universe theory fails because it falls flat on it's face out of the gate, it's basis is that subatomic particles self organize. The laws of physics demonstrate this isn't so.

I agree, the "laws" derived from ideal ionized gases using MHD models that are used by astrophysicists and most are familiar with would falsify the EUT. Fortunately though, the EUT has realized those models are wrong as stated by Alfven 40+ years ago, and they use the more accurate plasma models Alfven and others developed.
The reason Langmuir coined the term plasma was due to it's self consistent nature and it's similarity to biological plasma. You would do well to look up the papers I suggested for not too swift as well.
GSwift7
4 / 5 (4) Sep 05, 2013
Why Space Physics Needs to Go Beyond the MHD Box" (2004


Yeah, that's a good paper. That guy was exactly correct, in 2004.

Thankfully, we now have multiple space-based observatories which are answering the very questions he pointed out. Those questions were not new ones in 2004 though, and he was not alone in wanting observatories which could answer those questions. Luckily, there were enough people who agreed that they actually launched probes like STEREO, KOBE and SOHO.

Nobody in today's field of astronomy treats space plasma as an ideal MHD fluid. That's old news, and we have much more mature models now. You're arguing, once again, over a point that's no longer valid. Everyone has known this for decades now, and we are finally getting the data needed to properly model it.

But it doesn't act anything like your EUT suggests. As the paper you linked to says, it is mostly kinetic physics.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Sep 05, 2013
"A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on."
Winston Churchill

That's why I keep reading about "magnetic reconnection" which is based upon the "frozen-in" concept. If I remember correctly you have defended the nonsensical idea that magnetic fields are frozen-in the plasma. I have yet to read an article on this website that has referred to any mention of an electric field in cosmical considerations and the effects it would have. The revolution you claim to have taken place absolutely has not even been approached.