Super-freezer supernova 1987A is a dust factory

Jul 05, 2013
Hubble Space Telescope image of supernova 1987A (Credit: ESA, NASA, P. Challis and R. Kirshner) The keyhole-like shape at the centre is the remnant of the supernova explosion 1987A. This remnant is still expanding with a speed of 2200 km per second. It is believed that the surrounding ring was formed before the explosion.

(Phys.org) —Surprisingly low temperatures detected in the remnant of the supernova 1987A may explain the mystery of why space is so abundant with dust grains and molecules. The results will be presented by Dr Mikako Matsuura at the National Astronomy Meeting 2013 in St Andrews on Friday 5 July.

In 1987, an explosion of a massive star was detected in our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud, just 170,000 light years away. This , dubbed 1987A, released approximately thousand million times more energy than that emitted by the Sun in one year. Twenty five years later, an international team of astronomers has used the Herschel Space Observatory and Atacama Millimeter and Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study the supernova remnant. They found a vast reservoir of unexpectedly cold molecules and dust.

"The powerful explosion we saw in 1987 scattered elements made by star into space in the form of a very hot plasma. The gas has now cooled down to temperatures between -250 to -170 degrees Celsius. That's surprisingly cold, comparable to the icy surface of Pluto at the edge of our Solar System. The gas has formed molecules and some has even condensed into solid grains of dust. The supernova has now become a super freezer!" said Dr Matsuura.

The Herschel observations show that the supernova produced dust and solid material equal to about 250 000 times the mass of the Earth, or three quarters of the mass of the Sun. To date, scientists have believed that contain only very energetic , detectable at optical X-ray wavelengths; the new observations show that this is not the case. The discovery of such a large mass of dust should help us to understand how supernovae slowly spread and fill galaxies with gas, dust and small rocky particles, some of which may eventually end up in the next generation of stars and planets.

"We were surprised by the amount of dust and molecular gas in the reservoir created by the supernova 1987A. The ALMA and Herschel observations show that the reservoir contains carbon monoxide molecules equalling one tenth of the mass of the Sun. Herschel shows that the dust mass was even larger - about half the solar mass!" said Dr Matsuura.

The ALMA composite image of supernova 1987A, overlaid on the optical and near-infrared images. The ALMA image, indicated in red, captured the molecular reservoir in the remaining of supernova 1987A. (Credit: Kamenetzky et al, Astrophysical Journal Letters (submitted))

"We don't get many opportunities to study supernova. These events are very rare and the majority was found in very distant galaxies. Even with relatively close ones, like 1987A, it's difficult – although they are very bright at the time of the explosion, the light from the supernovae fades very quickly making it very difficult to observe them a few years after the explosion," said Dr Matsuura. "Carl Sagan once said that: 'We are all made of star-stuff'. These results will help us understand how that material reached us!"

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Shootist
2.8 / 5 (11) Jul 05, 2013
This forum was much nicer when Oliver was the only cookoo we had to put up with.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (12) Jul 05, 2013
What forces could drive this obvious plasma discharge? Electromagnetism of course, unfortunately for the search for knowledge, those charged with examining these phenomena are largely ignorant of the processes of the matter they are charged with studying, plasma.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (7) Jul 05, 2013
What forces could drive this obvious plasma discharge?


Try reading the article for once, not only is it not plasma, the surprise is that it isn't even cold gas, it is predominantly dust grains, like very fine grit or sand.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Jul 05, 2013
So this dust forms these complex shapes by chance? This is gravitationally controlled dust with a keyhole shape? No, the entire object, including the two faint red rings are part of the same structure. The "keyhole" is dusty plasma, controlled by EM forces into the complex formation we see.
yyz
5 / 5 (5) Jul 05, 2013
"The "keyhole" is dusty plasma, controlled by EM forces into the complex formation we see."

Link to peer-reviewed paper?
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (5) Jul 06, 2013
So this dust forms these complex shapes by chance?


No, it hasn't formed shapes at all. The shapes image are a picture in visible light onto which the ALMA RF density has been superimposed. The dust is cold so only emits in radio frequencies and the ALMA contribution is the uniform, fuzzy red blob in the centre with no structure. As I said, try reading the article before commenting.
katesisco
1 / 5 (7) Jul 06, 2013
Getting closer: hot and dense equals cold and thin
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Jul 06, 2013
From the perspective of it being plasma formation, not just the anomalous dust cloud, but the entire formation including the wispy red rings, the bright string of pearls ring, the "keyhole" structure. It clearly has all the morphology of a cosmic Z-pinch along a plasma Birkeland current.
vidyunmaya
1 / 5 (10) Jul 06, 2013
Sub: Stability and Structure Dynamics
supernova 1987A reminds Universe function. Plasma Regulated Electromagnetic phenomena in magnetic Field Environment touches the heart and a purpose -DMVT process introduced in my models. see Space Cosmology Vedas Interlinks.
HannesAlfven
1 / 5 (9) Jul 06, 2013
Wal Thornhill's plasma-based paper on this observation is listed at the bottom of his layman's explanation ...

http://www.holosc...coded-2/

This is far from kooky stuff. The object very plainly matches the morphology of a plasma discharge. It's really kind of sad actually that the skeptics continue to waste everybody's time by refusing to learn the morphologies which prevail within high-intensity plasma discharge laboratories. There's an extremely interesting conversation to be had here, but it seems that the refusal to learn about plasmas consistently precludes it. After all, 85 separate classes of these high-intensity discharges have been drawn onto rocks by our ancestors -- including the most destructive kinds involving synchrotron radiation. If I had to place a wager at this point, I'd guess that history will probably repeat, and our own ancestors will likely be doing the same.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (4) Jul 06, 2013
From the perspective of it being plasma formation, not just the anomalous dust cloud, but the entire formation including the wispy red rings, the bright string of pearls ring, the "keyhole" structure. It clearly has all the morphology of a cosmic Z-pinch along a plasma Birkeland current.


Rubbish. If you assume it is current based, it looks like three independent currents each flowing in a circular closed circuit. Of course if that were the case, there would be no potential difference around the loops to drive the currents.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Jul 06, 2013
Rubbish. If you assume it is current based, it looks like three independent currents each flowing in a circular closed circuit. Of course if that were the case, there would be no potential difference around the loops to drive the currents.

Your POV is dependent entirely upon your own belief of how you think that current should happen. As you say; "it looks like three independent currents", that is because you have no perspective of plasma formations/discharge. From that ignorance you claim it should be like this or that. The apparent hourglass shape is a distinctive morphology for a plasma z-pinch, as are all of the other anomalies, awareness of plasma discharge will enlighten you.
Your argument against potential difference is completely baseless and nothing but a false argument based on your own ignorance.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (6) Jul 06, 2013
Your POV is dependent entirely upon your own belief of how you think that current should happen. As you say; "it looks like three independent currents", that is because you have no perspective of plasma formations/discharge. From that ignorance you claim it should be like this or that. The apparent hourglass shape is a distinctive morphology for a plasma z-pinch, as are all of the other anomalies, awareness of plasma discharge will enlighten you.


Here is an actual photograph of z-pinch instability:

http://en.wikiped...ston.jpg

Note the similarity to the "ring of pearls" in the SN. The current flow is around the torus as I said.

Try learning the truth about plasma effects instead of parroting clueless crank sites and you'll find out why their claims are and always will be ignored. My knowledge is superficial yet clearly vastly better than yours, so consider yourself enlightened.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Jul 06, 2013
Yep, that's a z-pinch, and yes I recognize the similarity, as I have been stating all along. How do you explain such a similarity? As you have stated repeatedly, z-pinches are not possible in astrophysical plasmas. Yes, in the torus the current flows around the torus, but it is just a small ( but vital) part of the overall circuit which is flowing through the rings. The outer rings probably denote the extent of the current as it flows through interstellar space and the start of the pinch. EM force pinch the current into the hourglass shape which then flows into the torus. From the torus the currents flow into the star, the central plasmoid, a naturally forming kink instability in the birkeland current. So they are not "three independent currents", but three ring currents connected to the larger overall circuit. If lab experimentation then simulation confirmed by observation and peer reviewed by the experts in plasma circuitry at the IEEE is crank, then crank away.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Jul 06, 2013
Here is an image that shows a side view of a z-pinch, the hourglass shape is obvious.

https://sphotos-a...15_n.jpg

The hourglass magnetic fields created by the pinch is probably typical for stars (including Sun) and galaxies whereas the comet type magnetic fields being for orbiting bodies. Globular clusters probably have comet type fields as they orbit within the influence of galaxies. That guy A2G that posted a few months ago claiming some profound discovery really discovered the magnetic field of a z-pinch.
http://www.youtub...lyiW-xGI
By using his bowl shaped magnets he was able to reproduce this z-pinch hourglass field. The core of this field is a plasmoid, and two interacting plasmoids have been shown to mimic galaxy formation and evolution. Even superficial knowledge should see the obvious.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (9) Jul 07, 2013
What's really amazing is that you can have such a strong opinion and omnipotent knowledge when it comes to space plasmas, which you have only superficial knowledge thereof. That which consists of 99.99% of the observable universe. Superficial knowledge of plasma physics is rampant in astrophysics today...

"In conclusion, it seems that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of theoretical astrophysicists who have gotten their education from the listed textbooks. The multibillion dollar space data from astronomical telescopes should be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics, circuit theory, and, of course, modern plasma physics. More than 99 percent of the Universe consists of plasma, and the ratio between electromagnetic and gravitational forces is 10^39."
—H. Alfvén, NASA Conference Publication 2469, 1986, p. 16.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (1) Jul 13, 2013
Yep, that's a z-pinch, and yes I recognize the similarity, .. As you have stated repeatedly, z-pinches are not possible in astrophysical plasmas.


I haven't said that, but obviously z-pinches aren't possible where there is no current flowing.

Yes, in the torus the current flows around the torus, ... If lab experimentation then simulation confirmed by observation


But that's the point, it ISN'T confirmed. As you admit, the current in the lab tests is at right angles to what the cranks claim for the astronomical case.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (7) Jul 13, 2013
I haven't said that, but obviously z-pinches aren't possible where there is no current flowing.
I know, I know, you don't "believe" currents flow through plasma, contrary to scientific research. It only behaves like plasma in "special" places, you know those places where it is absolutely obvious and it cannot be denied. I know for a fact you are wrong though, the proof is magnetic fields. Only electric current create them.
But that's the point, it ISN'T confirmed. As you admit, the current in the lab tests is at right angles to what the cranks claim for the astronomical case.

Right angles are in fact unique in EM, it shouldn't be a surprise that the current flowing around torus is perpendicular to the flow through the BC. In fact, this is exactly what is expected from a pinch current. It is these same forces that align galactic jets to right angles from the rotation of a galaxy. The galactic Fermi "bubbles" are analogous to the hourglass shape of this nebula and Fig. 8.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (1) Jul 13, 2013
I haven't said that, but obviously z-pinches aren't possible where there is no current flowing.
I know, I know, you don't "believe" currents flow through plasma, contrary to scientific research.


Wrong again, plasma is a conductor, apply a voltage and current will flow, but you haven't identified how the potential is generated. You have a wire but no battery.

I know for a fact you are wrong though, the proof is magnetic fields. Only electric current create them.


Wrong again. As I have suggested before, go down to your local toy shop and ask them for something called a "bar magnet". It contains a "frozen in" magnetic field, you know the type you claim cannot exist.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (6) Jul 13, 2013
The flow is there, and the magnetic currents are the evidence. Where the flow originates? That's more a metaphysical question isn't it? Fact is, we see these "magnetic flux tubes" or filamentary structures with magnetic fields throughout the cosmos at nearly every scale. It's only you that sees interstellar bar magnets causing these "frozen-in" fields. Last I checked, I thought we were discussing plasma and not ferromagnetic metals. How exactly is a magnetic field "frozen-in" and carried along in plasma like the solar wind or molecular clouds? How exactly does the solar wind "carry" magnetic fields along with it? Let's stay on topic.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (3) Jul 14, 2013
The flow is there,


And yet it cannot be detected.

and the magnetic currents are the evidence.


No, they are produced within the Sun, not circling a current flowing through it.

Where the flow originates? That's more a metaphysical question isn't it?


No, it's the hard science that your cranks sites insist on ignoring. If the Sun is powered by I^2.R heating, then there has to be some external generator to produce that power and that doesn't exist in the EU model, the energy just appears out of nowhere by magic.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (7) Jul 14, 2013
No, they are produced within the Sun, not circling a current flowing through it.

Well what about galactic magnetic fields? Hard science conveniently ignore by the standard theorists. What about large scale magnetic fields in molecular clouds devoid of stars? Where are those fields produced. Magical interstellar bar magnets I suppose...

And yet it cannot be detected.

Yes, yes it can, the magnetic fields are part of the evidence. Molecular clouds have magnetic fields and when they do they meet the CIV to ionize the matter within causing it to behave as plasma. Galactic jets are a perfect example of obvious BC's, ignored by you. This image from the linked paper examines those very BC's you deny;
http://www.holosc...ents.jpg
Another problem with Jeans instability is that it applies to an "ideal gas", sadly plasma is not an ideal gas. JI also fails to acknowledge the magnetic fields within these molecular clouds.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (7) Jul 14, 2013
Images of birkeland currents;

http://violet.pha...oop.html

http://www.electr...;id=1619

here's a star forming "dusty tentacle", less well known as an interstellar birkeland current with star forming plasma kink instabilities.

And what about the "mysterious ribbon" discovered by Ibex?
http://www.nasa.g...bex.html

And here's a story about a galaxy "feeding" on nearby "gas", one can reasonably question whether the "infalling gas" is actually a birkeland current delivering the power to the galaxy if another POV is allowed consideration.

There a many examples of observed birkeland currents, however one must open their eyes to see the obvious.

To be sure, it is YOU and the Standard Theory which requires magic to create the multitude of magnetic fields that have been observed throughout the universe.

cantdrive85
1 / 5 (7) Jul 14, 2013
Oops, forgot link;

here's a star forming "dusty tentacle", less well known as an interstellar birkeland current with star forming plasma kink instabilities.


http://www.space....oto.html
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (7) Jul 14, 2013
The flow is there,


And yet it cannot be detected.


Well, they are. You just need to be aware of the physics involved. Here's one example;

http://www.plasma...smic.pdf
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (2) Jul 15, 2013
Well, they are. You just need to be aware of the physics involved. Here's one example;

http://www.plasma...smic.pdf


Again, just drawing "G" and then analysing the current flow that would result is not evidence that "G" exists and constantly quoting one crank web site isn't adding to the claims credibility. You should be able to cite papers from peer reviewed journals and multiple sources to support the claims.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (1) Jul 15, 2013
Images of birkeland currents;

http://violet.pha...oop.html


"In this picture, the shock front is moving upward and the supernova explosion was at a distant location out the bottom of the picture."

That's at right angles to what the current should do again. It is obviously the shock of the supersonic material impacting the ISM.

The quoting didn't work for the rest (phys.org is broken for multiple links) but all you are doing is showing pretty pictures and saying "this looks like what I want it to look like". What you need is actual evidence for currents. For example synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation are regularly used to measure magnetic fields. What you need is a method that can be used to MEASURE the currents you claim exist.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (6) Jul 16, 2013
For example synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation are regularly used to measure magnetic fields.


Wow, just wow! And what causes synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation? Electrons accelerated in field aligned CURRENTS such as those produced by Birkeland currents. Faraday rotation is coincidentally the electromotive force exerted by two BC's wrapping and twisting about each other. One distinct aspect of the filamentary nature of plasma is the helical or spiral of twisting BC's. This cannot be explained by ideal gas laws, these same gas laws you so fervently cling to even as they have been proven wrong. Magnetism is NOT created by magic, just as has been proven time and time again in labs since the 1820's, ELECTRIC CURRENT = MAGNETISM. There are no magical bar magnets in space. You cannot measure an astrophysical electric current from afar, even to immerse devices in the plasma flow wouldn't give a total picture as these flows are inhomogeneous. Without them, no magnetism.
Fleetfoot
5 / 5 (3) Jul 16, 2013
For example synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation are regularly used to measure magnetic fields.


Wow, just wow! And what causes synchrotron radiation and Faraday rotation? Electrons accelerated in field aligned CURRENTS ..


WRONG on both counts, the charged particles are moving at RIGHT ANGLES to the magnetic field which results in a spiral motion. That rotation produces the emission. Second, the gas is neutral but ionised so you have equal flows of positive and negative charge hence there is NO NET CURRENT.

Once again, the challenge for you is to produce physical EVIDENCE for your interstellar currents, not just claims of "Oooh Look" at pretty pictures or crank papers that are unconnected to any actual observations.

Faraday rotation is coincidentally the electromotive force ..


Nope, it is purely a magnetic effect. You really need to read something other than crank sites, even Wikipedia will do:

http://en.wikiped...y_effect
yyz
5 / 5 (3) Jul 16, 2013
"... the challenge for you is to produce physical EVIDENCE for your interstellar currents, not just claims of "Oooh Look" at pretty pictures or crank papers that are unconnected to any actual observations."

Unfortunately looking at pictures is pretty much all EU/PC science offers these days(like re-interpreting press releases, instead of published papers, for chrissake). I tend to think of it as Electric Universe Pareidolia. If it looks like a Birkelund current, it IS a Birkelund current. If it looks like a z-pinch, it IS a z-pinch. No further investigation required.

Science should be so simple

/not