Leaf cutter ants inspire powerful new anti-cancer drugs

July 3, 2013

(Phys.org) —Scientists at the University of East Anglia are developing a new class of anti-cancer drugs that are not only powerful but also circumvent a primary cause of resistance to chemotherapy.

Lead researcher Dr Matt Hutchings will talk about his work at the Society for Applied Microbiology Summer Conference in Cardiff today. The work is inspired by nature's fungus farmer, the leaf cutter ant.

Dr Matt Hutchings and his team have been studying a type of antibiotic that is produced by bacteria that live in symbiosis with . They have identified the involved in producing the antibiotic, opening the possibility to use this natural product as the basis for new drugs, including anti-cancer treatments.

The Streptomyces bacteria live on the outer surface of the ants, providing antibiotic protection against disease-causing infection. Among the antibiotics they produce are compounds called antimycins which have powerful activity against drug . Over 40 members of the antimycin family of antibiotics are known but the pathway was only recently identified by the UEA research team.

Dr Hutchings, from UEA's school of Biological Sciences, said: "We're using genetics to understand how the drugs are made in the bacteria so we can tweak the characteristics in favour of anti-cancer action, whilst protecting healthy cells. We want to make Streptomyces into a factory to produce a new type of chemotherapy drug on a large scale.

"What's particularly exciting is that the way the drugs work actually tackles one of the main causes of resistance to chemotherapy. In fact, the harder the cancer cell tries to overcome the chemotherapy, the more effective the drug is!"

Resistance to chemotherapy often arises because produce proteins that prevent apoptosis, or '', that would otherwise be triggered by the treatment. But antimycins actually inhibit the action of these proteins, allowing apoptosis to continue unhindered.

Dr Hutchings said: "Although scientists have known about these antibiotics for more than 60 years, we've only recently identified two genetic pathways that are involved in making these molecules and we're looking for still more."

Work by organic chemists has shown that antimycins can be altered to inhibit their harmful characteristics and promote the useful ones. Specifically, they can be very toxic to all cells because they interfere with fundamental metabolic processes, but it's possible to dramatically reduce this effect by altering their chemistry.

Dr Hutchings' team aim to make these changes through genetics so that the drugs can be made cheaply and on a large scale using bacteria in fermentation tanks.

Explore further: Ants found to use multiple antibiotics as weed killers

Related Stories

Recommended for you

Researchers design first artificial ribosome

July 29, 2015

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University have engineered a tethered ribosome that works nearly as well as the authentic cellular component, or organelle, that produces all the proteins ...

Studies reveal details of error correction in cell division

July 29, 2015

Cell biologists led by Thomas Maresca at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with collaborators elsewhere, report an advance in understanding the workings of an error correction mechanism that helps cells detect and ...

Researchers discover new type of mycovirus

July 29, 2015

Researchers, led by Dr Robert Coutts, Leverhulme Research Fellow from the School of Life and Medical Sciences at the University of Hertfordshire, and Dr Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Research Associate at Imperial College, have discovered ...

Stressed out plants send animal-like signals

July 29, 2015

University of Adelaide research has shown for the first time that, despite not having a nervous system, plants use signals normally associated with animals when they encounter stress.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.