2011 UK Census: Ethnic diversity is home grown

Jun 17, 2013

Immigration has had less significant impact than British births on the rising population of most of England and Wales' ethnic groups, according to the latest analysis of the 2011 Census by University of Manchester researchers.

The team based at the University's Centre on Dynamics of Ethnicity (CoDE) say the growth in Britain's established ethnic groups has been caused, in the main, by an excess of births over deaths.

Pakistani and Bangladeshi groups have grown each by about 50% during 2001-2011, mostly because more people have been born than have died.

For the Caribbean group - who in the came to the UK more than 60 years ago - growth has been less than 5%, which was entirely down to the excess of births over deaths, rather than immigration.

The Irish group, with a relatively , reduced by 18% over the decade, both from an excess of deaths over births and from net . Some immigrants continue to arrive in their twenties.

Of the established groups, only the Indians, they say, have grown substantially through immigration, accounting for two thirds of their growth, though many of these are students.

However, immigration was the main factor for newer Eastern European, African and Chinese ethnic groups, who grew between 70% and 100% in total through the decade.

According to the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, the population of England and Wales grew from 52.4 million in 2001 to 56 million in 2011.

Lead researcher Professor Ludi Simpson said: "By examining the changing of each ethnic group between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses, we have estimated the significance of international , births and deaths to , and tracked changing fertility patterns.

"And this research shows categorically that, contrary to popular opinion, our diversity is home grown.

"Immigration into the UK tends be of , who add to the productive workforce and start new families.

"We are now seeing the product of these previous migrations: there are many more births than deaths.

"It's not until many years later that those who emigrated become elderly and suffer significant numbers of deaths."

Also according to the team:

  • Fertility of most ethnic groups, including White British, has increased a little in the 2000s, but overall there is less difference in family size between than in past decades.
  • Bangladeshi and Pakistani family size has reduced to an average of about three children per family, still higher than other groups.
  • Chinese fertility is particularly low, partly because one third of the Chinese are students.
  • People from mixed race backgrounds are the youngest ethnic group in England and Wales. For each of the four mixed groups identified by the Census, between 39% and 47% are under 15, double the figure of 18% for England and Wales as a whole
  • The growth in mixed race groups was mainly due to children born in the decade, though a smaller but significant growth of about 25% was through immigration.

Explore further: Multi-ethnic neighbourhoods have increased across England and Wales

More information: www.ethnicity.ac.uk/census

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

First 'plural' towns and city outside London revealed

Jan 10, 2013

The latest analysis of 2011 census data in England and Wales, published today by University of Manchester researchers, has revealed the first local authorities outside London where no ethnic group is in the majority.

Recommended for you

Online reviews: When do negative opinions boost sales?

16 hours ago

When purchasing items online, reading customer reviews is a convenient way to get a real-world account of other people's opinions of the product. According to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research, negative review ...

User comments : 0

More news stories

Online reviews: When do negative opinions boost sales?

When purchasing items online, reading customer reviews is a convenient way to get a real-world account of other people's opinions of the product. According to a new study in the Journal of Consumer Research, negative review ...

ESO image: A study in scarlet

This new image from ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile reveals a cloud of hydrogen called Gum 41. In the middle of this little-known nebula, brilliant hot young stars are giving off energetic radiation that ...

First direct observations of excitons in motion achieved

A quasiparticle called an exciton—responsible for the transfer of energy within devices such as solar cells, LEDs, and semiconductor circuits—has been understood theoretically for decades. But exciton movement within ...

Patent talk: Google sharpens contact lens vision

(Phys.org) —A report from Patent Bolt brings us one step closer to what Google may have in mind in developing smart contact lenses. According to the discussion Google is interested in the concept of contact ...

Warm US West, cold East: A 4,000-year pattern

Last winter's curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A University of Utah-led study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, ...