Dusty surprise around giant black hole

Jun 20, 2013
This artist's impression shows the surroundings of the supermassive black hole at the heart of the active galaxy NGC 3783 in the southern constellation of Centaurus (The Centaur). New observations using the Very Large Telescope Interferometer at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile have revealed not only the torus of hot dust around the black hole but also a wind of cool material in the polar regions. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

(Phys.org) —ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer has gathered the most detailed observations ever of the dust around the huge black hole at the centre of an active galaxy. Rather than finding all of the dust in a doughnut-shaped torus around the black hole, astronomers find that much of it is located above and below the torus. These observations show that dust is being pushed away from the black hole as a cool wind—a surprising finding.

Over the last twenty years, astronomers have found that almost all galaxies have a huge black hole at their centre. Some of these black holes are growing by drawing in matter from their surroundings, creating in the process the most energetic objects in the Universe: (AGN). The central regions of these brilliant powerhouses are ringed by doughnuts of dragged from the surrounding space, similar to how water forms a small whirlpool around the plughole of a sink. It was thought that most of the strong coming from AGN originated in these doughnuts.

But new observations of a nearby active galaxy called NGC 3783, harnessing the power of the Very Large (VLTI) at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile, have given a team of astronomers a surprise. Although the hot —at some 700 to 1000 degrees Celsius—is indeed in a as expected, they found huge amounts of cooler dust above and below this main torus.

As Sebastian Hönig (University of California Santa Barbara, USA and Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Germany), lead author of the paper presenting the new results, explains, "This is the first time we've been able to combine detailed mid- of the cool, room-temperature dust around an AGN with similarly detailed observations of the very hot dust. This also represents the largest set of infrared interferometry for an AGN published yet."

The newly-discovered dust forms a cool wind streaming outwards from the black hole. This wind must play an important role in the complex relationship between the black hole and its environment. The black hole feeds its insatiable appetite from the surrounding material, but the intense radiation this produces also seems to be blowing the material away. It is still unclear how these two processes work together and allow supermassive black holes to grow and evolve within galaxies, but the presence of a dusty wind adds a new piece to this picture.

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This video shows an artist’s impression of the dusty wind emanating from the black hole at the centre of galaxy NGC 3783. Astronomers knew that dust surrounded such supermassive black holes in a doughnut-shaped torus, but new observations using ESO’s Very Large Telescope Interferometer now show that dust also lies in the polar regions. This material is pushed outwards by the black hole’s radiation, forming a cool, dusty wind. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

In order to investigate the central regions of NGC 3783, the astronomers needed to use the combined power of the Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope. Using these units together forms an interferometer that can obtain a resolution equivalent to that of a 130-metre telescope.

Another team member, Gerd Weigelt (Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany), explains, "By combining the world-class sensitivity of the large mirrors of the VLT with interferometry we are able to collect enough light to observe faint objects. This lets us study a region as small as the distance from our Sun to its closest neighbouring star, in a galaxy tens of millions of light-years away. No other optical or infrared system in the world is currently capable of this."

These new observations may lead to a paradigm shift in the understanding of AGN. They are direct evidence that dust is being pushed out by the intense radiation. Models of how the dust is distributed and how supermassive grow and evolve must now take into account this newly-discovered effect.

Hönig concludes, "I am now really looking forward to MATISSE, which will allow us to combine all four VLT Unit Telescopes at once and observe simultaneously in the near- and mid-infrared—giving us much more detailed data." MATISSE, a second generation instrument for the VLTI, is currently under construction.

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cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Jun 20, 2013
The newly-discovered dust forms a cool wind streaming outwards from the black hole. This wind must play an important role in the complex relationship between the black hole and its environment. The black hole feeds its insatiable appetite from the surrounding material, but the intense radiation this produces also seems to be blowing the material away. It is still unclear how these two processes work together and allow supermassive black holes to grow and evolve within galaxies, but the presence of a dusty wind adds a new piece to this picture.


"There are things known and there are things unknown, and in between are the doors of perception."
― Aldous Huxley

"The phenomena of electrical discharge are exceedingly important, and when they are better understood they will probably throw great light on the nature of electricity as well as on the nature of gases and of the medium pervading space." James Clerk Maxwell, Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism.
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (10) Jun 20, 2013
EM can explain this attraction and repulsion. Gravity? Not so much.
Fleetfoot
3.5 / 5 (4) Jun 20, 2013
EM can explain this attraction and repulsion.


You have yet to rise to the challenge of your last claim, explaining Sag A*, or had you forgotten that.

Gravity? Not so much.


No, in this case the main effect will be neither EM nor gravity but radiation pressure.
Ober
2 / 5 (4) Jun 21, 2013
Perhaps a WHITE HOLE??? Though that is a VERY BIG perhaps!!!!
Tuxford
1 / 5 (6) Jun 22, 2013
No surprise here. A paradigm shift is long overdue. Another windy core confounding accretion models:

http://phys.org/n...arp.html

And the chicken or the egg:

http://phys.org/n...tml#nRlv

And the egg grows much faster than the chicken:

http://phys.org/n...ter.html

http://phys.org/n...ync.html

And merger mania is bunk:

http://phys.org/n...ole.html

If I kept going, I'd need a calculator to sum it all up.

ValeriaT
1.7 / 5 (6) Jun 22, 2013
Rather than finding all of the dust in a doughnut-shaped torus around the black hole, astronomers find that much of it is located above and below the torus
This is because in dense aether model the black holes are essentially dense massive stars, which eject much of their matter via polar jets. This process is visible at the case of many black holes, like this one. This explains, why the black holes at the center of old mature galaxies (like our own Milky Way) are quiet and rather insignificant with compare to younger ones - they radiated most of their matter already.
bruitus
1.4 / 5 (10) Jun 22, 2013
iv been doing some work on black holes while developing my internal sub-atomic expansion engine and it seems to me that not only does timespace also include quanta within the framework but my work also indicates that black holes are the result of this phenomina but also that there is a correlation to radiant stars being the 'opposite reaction' so to speak of this event or events. do the math.a black hole is the exact opposite of a radiant star and both are the result of spacequantatime being that quanta is 0,space -1,time 1. 0 the action -1,1 the equal and opposite reaction..which brings me to the universe,we are a negative reaction in zero or nothing where time space and quanta have collided and caused an insignificant vaccum with both posative and negative matter..all things are an equal and opposite reaction of an event.we are just the neg event.what about the neg/pos simultaniously from (-1,0,1)?
ValeriaT
1.6 / 5 (5) Jun 23, 2013
Perhaps a WHITE HOLE??? Though that is a VERY BIG perhaps!
You're absolutely right/ The lost of matter via jets may serve as an trivial evidence of recent Maldacena-Susskind theory, because the ends of jet represent the white hole in its model.
bruitus
1 / 5 (2) Jul 21, 2013
i know you guys think im out there which is true but look at what i found in the math. quanta or quantity is a part of space/time,infact its the catalys where space time is the equal and oppisite reaction.the equation i have suggests that in reality we can see this in action, neutron stars being the catalyst,we know photon spheres blue and red shift,and blackholes and radiant stars are the equal and oppisite reaction through mechanical energy transfer. my equation is; 0 with a horozontal line through it over 3 equals [-1][1{to the power of 3}] over three. its space time quanta reaccuring and it changes its form through mechanical energy transfer.they are two individual and very seperate things they just look the same on paper.1 3rd is a factor of quanta, quanta has a factor of 2 [-1,1] so .333[reacurring] is a factor of 0[with the horozontal line] which has a factor of 2..proves they are seperate,you can visually see this theory in practise if you take the time to look.
Fleetfoot
not rated yet Jul 22, 2013
i know you guys think im out there which is true ..


Yep.

An equation involves letters called "variables". In physics, those represent the numbers read from measuring instruments.
bruitus
1 / 5 (1) Jul 22, 2013
im not sure but if the comment is directed at me then yes,i agree but my arguement would be that galelao did not have acess to a quantum computer yet he showed theorys that were later proved true,its the chicken and egg syndrome,what is correct the instument or the brain that dictates that the information from that instument is true and correct.you see we can prove things through math and a little common sense the same way we build instuments to prove these theorys.in essence if you look through history all scientists of the physics/astrology sector were all mostly labelled nut casesd untill we started proving the things that they were saying ie telsa and the american government when they said that direct current was the only form of electricity available. when i look at my work as a whole i too think woa that sum gibberish yet when the math is done and the sky examined i cannot deny the fact that the math equates..its possible that i am wrong but theres too much evidence.
Fleetfoot
not rated yet Jul 23, 2013
im not sure but if the comment is directed at me


That's why I quoted what you said.

then yes,i agree but my arguement would be that galelao did not have acess to a quantum computer


Pencil and paper works too.

i cannot deny the fact that the math equates..its possible that i am wrong but theres too much evidence.


There is no evidence whatsoever, you have no variables that you can calculate and compare to reality. Galileo and Tesla did. There is no content in your post whatsoever.
bruitus
1 / 5 (1) Jul 24, 2013
the evidence speaks for itself. quantity has no sides,no depth just mass..it takes time and space to travel mass.therefore spacetime is an equal and opposite reaction to [delta]mass.you can see this in action when you look at the night sky.im working on proving that the only 3 items in the universe that have fuction[that im aware of anyway] are a result or are an action of space time quantity.i mean i can understand you not liking that i said man is fallable but i already predicted the christchurch earthquakes[have undeniable evidence and statements] so im pretty sure i have something,like my cathode ray engine..electrical fuel. nothing is impossible.

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