Fracking risks to ground water assessed

May 17, 2013 by Lin Edwards weblog
Fracking risks to ground water assessed
A horizontal drill rig capable of drilling one to two miles vertically or horizontally. Credit: Susan Brantley

(Phys.org) —Extraction of "unconventional" gas from sedimentary rocks such as shale could provide a clean energy source and help some regions to become energy independent, but concerns have been raised about risks such as the contamination of ground water. The current knowledge of these risks has now been assessed in a review published in Science this week.

Shale is a glassy type of sedimentary rock that is often deep underground - up to a mile or more - and contains deposits of tightly bound natural gas. Unconventional gas is also found in tightly packed sand deposits and in coal seams. Conventional natural gas is extracted from porous sandstone or carbonates.

In the article, Professor Radisav Vidic of the University of Pittsburgh and colleagues reviewed the current state of knowledge on the environmental and other risks of (fracking), which is a process that has been known for decades, but has only recently become widespread.

The fracking process involves drilling down to the and then drilling horizontal wells through the rock. Large amounts of a fluid mixture are then injected into the rock at high pressure to fracture it and release the tightly bound into the wells.

Fracking risks to ground water assessed
This hydraulic fracturing operation pumped about five million gallons of water and about 1,000 tons of sand one to two miles deep and one to two miles horizontally to fracture shale and allow gas to enter the well. Credit: David Yoxtheimer

The fluid mixture contains and sand, and a mix of chemicals to reduce friction, scaling, and . Over 750 different additives have been used in fracking operations in the US, including , , hydrochloric acid, and petroleum distillates. Some of the additives used are not at present subject to regulation.

Much of the fluid is recovered, but the remainder is lost, and it is not known whether it stays in the rock or is absorbed into deep or migrates away from the site. Dr. Vidic said it is possible that some of the water could reach the drinking water aquifers at shallower levels through cracks in the rock. The is contaminated with up to 10 times the level of salt found in seawater, with radioactive and organic materials, and other chemicals such as bromides released from the rock. In Pennsylvania in the US, around 26 million barrels of waste water are recovered each year from the Marcellus shale field.

Another risk of fracking is contamination by gas into shallow groundwater caused by faulty seals. The rate of seal failure is around 1-3%, but owners of private wells located near fracking sites have reported the presence of methane in their well water. The methane could be from natural sources, especially in Pennsylvania where there is a naturally high level of methane in well water. There is often no reliable data available of pre-drilling methane levels.

Vidic and his co-authors warn that water extracted from private wells should be monitored more thoroughly than it is at present. They also point out that it is also important to identify abandoned oil and gas wells in the vicinity of fracking wells, as the presence of abandoned wells is believed to have led to at least one incidence of contamination of drinking water by fracking fluid.

The team also suggests that it is critical for water management that the exact composition of the fracking fluid and recovered waste water is known. At present the recovered water is either injected back into the wells for (theoretically) permanent storage, or cleaned and re-used, but as the gas is extracted there will be less opportunity to re-use the water. The authors therefore urge that sustainable and permanent solutions for disposing of the contaminated water need to be developed.

Vidic warned that the fracking industry is ignoring these issues, and while there is no evidence yet of "severe" environmental pollution, there will be a time in the future when the waste water cannot be re-used or disposed of as it is today. Treating it will be expensive and produce solids such as salt that will have to be properly disposed of.

Explore further: Groundwater unaffected by shale gas production in Arkansas

More information: Science 17 May 2013: Vol. 340 no. 6134 DOI: 10.1126/science.1235009

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VENDItardE
1.6 / 5 (25) May 17, 2013
opinion is NOT science.
antialias_physorg
3.4 / 5 (20) May 17, 2013
Extraction of "unconventional" gas from sedimentary rocks such as shale could provide a clean energy source

Could someone explain which part of fossil fuels is 'clean'?

Some of the additives used are not at present subject to regulation.

Anyone's alarmbells NOT going off at this?
inevitability
2.5 / 5 (12) May 17, 2013
Why would you re-post a two year old article when the exact same researcher published contradictory results less than two days ago (read:Groundwater unaffected by shale gas production in Arkansas). It looks like you are pushing an agenda rather than science.
SolidRecovery
3 / 5 (26) May 17, 2013
Vidic warned that the fracking industry is ignoring these issues, and while there is no evidence yet of "severe" environmental pollution, there will be a time in the future when the waste water cannot be re-used or disposed of as it is today.


Sums up the article. There are many risked involved with fracking but profits are put before well being.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1.7 / 5 (27) May 17, 2013
Could someone explain which part of fossil fuels is 'clean'?
This part:

"Natural gas is the cleanest of all the fossil fuels. Composed primarily of methane, the main products of the combustion of natural gas are carbon dioxide and water vapor, the same compounds we exhale when we breathe."

Or in other words you pollute as much as it does.
eachus
3 / 5 (9) May 17, 2013
Sigh! This guy seems to be a prostitute not a scientist. IF you think that CO2 is the major current environmental threat, then fracking is the greatest discovery since agriculture. With respect to CO2 coal (or possibly coal gas) is the worst possible fuel, oil is significantly better, natural gas is much better than oil, then nuclear. If you don't want nuclear for other reasons, gas is the best fuel of those available. Well someday photovoltaics will be even better than gas, but right now the CO2 cost of making silicon wafers and processing them is significant.

What about wind and water power? Basically all the best hydroelectric sites are in use, and anyway concrete is hardly CO2 neutral. As for wind, a recent article here pointed out that current wind turbine produce very chaotic power measured over time intervals on the order of one second. That's why so much research on power storage methods to combine with wind power generation--otherwise the power grid get jerked around.
deepsand
2.6 / 5 (30) May 17, 2013
opinion is NOT science.

Which is why your remarks are not matters of Science.
deepsand
2.6 / 5 (27) May 17, 2013
Why would you re-post a two year old article when the exact same researcher published contradictory results less than two days ago (read:Groundwater unaffected by shale gas production in Arkansas). It looks like you are pushing an agenda rather than science.

Arkansas is not representative of the world.
ValeriaT
1.7 / 5 (11) May 17, 2013
In my pleasure the readers here recognized the strong economical and political motivation of this study. The fracking is strongly supported with existing fossil fuel lobby, as it maintains the continuity of their investments into existing technologies, but it just delays the final solution of fossil fuel replacement, not to say about deepening of environmental and geopolitical crisis (China vs USA and Japan). We should invest into research of new technologies like the cold fusion, not to extend the primitive fossil fuel era, the limits of which are already exhausted.
deepsand
2.4 / 5 (25) May 17, 2013
You were doing fine, VT, right up to the moment you mentioned cold fusion.
ValeriaT
1.4 / 5 (10) May 18, 2013
IMO it's nonsensical to oppose the fossil fuel lobby and cold fusion at the same moment. The doubts in cold fusion were spread just with this lobby. But the cold fusion represents an unwanted competition to all methods of energy production/conversion and storage (i.e. not just fossil fuels) - so that the proponents of fossil fuel alternatives are doubting it too as a single man.
antialias_physorg
3.2 / 5 (9) May 18, 2013
right up to the moment you mentioned cold fusion.

Relapse. Therapy doesn't work all at once. Give it time.
ValeriaT
1.4 / 5 (11) May 18, 2013
According to NASA, 1% of the world's nickel production could meet the world's energy needs, at a quarter of the cost of coal. Do you believe, that NASA scientists are on medication too? Cold fusion research continues in 2013 as further experiments are planned, but because it has no priority and centralized support of government, its evolution is slow.
MaiioBihzon
3 / 5 (28) May 18, 2013
The person following me around and rating me with 1's should enjoy this comment.

There are people in Pennsylvania who can light on fire what comes out of their faucets. And, yes, surprise, surprise, they live near where fracking has taken place.

The caution with which people come at fracking with criticism is not hard to understand. There is an enormous amount of money at stake. Nor is Valeria wrong when she mentions there is a powerful lobby pushing as hard as it possibly can for fracking to be deemed safe and beneficial for humanity.

She is also not incorrect that while that lobby is doing all it can to push fracking forward, there is at the same time an equally strong effort to restrain, slow down or bury energy alternatives which might compete with those protected by that same lobby.

That said, loans have been made and profits already spent on fossil fuels still in the ground. Our civilization WILL extract them. No matter what damage it may do to us or to our environment.
ValeriaT
1.5 / 5 (8) May 18, 2013
Yep. The progress of human society is not driven with utilitarian principles only, i.e. with assets expected into future. The protection of investments, i.e. the conservative trait of the past plays its role too. At the moment, when nearly one half of civilization is represented with people, who are somehow engaged in utilization of fossil fuels, then there is no political will to abandon them until they're completely depleted, so that these people will be forced to die out, most probably in some war conflict. It's not about feelings, we can model and predict such an evolution mathematically.
deepsand
2.3 / 5 (22) May 18, 2013
According to NASA, 1% of the world's nickel production could meet the world's energy needs, at a quarter of the cost of coal. Do you believe, that NASA scientists are on medication too?

No, NOT "according to NASA," but per the speculations of a particular researcher.

Stop prevaricating.
ValeriaT
1.4 / 5 (9) May 18, 2013
but per the speculations of a particular researcher.
It's official stance of NASA. Or do you believe, some particular researchers can use the official publication, logos and PR channels of NASA for spreading of their private opinions? Or do you believe, they're even allowed to waste public budget for their private research in this matter? We can indeed doubt whether NASA is considering this research seriously, but it's another question.
deepsand
2.3 / 5 (24) May 18, 2013
[qIt's official stance of NASA. Or do you believe, some particular researchers can use the official publication, logos and PR channels of NASA for spreading of their private opinions? Or do you believe, they're even allowed to waste public budget for their private research in this matter? We can indeed doubt whether NASA is considering this research seriously, but it's another question.
No, it is NOT the "OFFICIAL STANCE" of NASA.

And, yes, NASA does fund speculative work.
deepsand
2.4 / 5 (26) May 18, 2013
The person following me around and rating me with 1's ... .

That would be "open." He/she does no more than select a member of the moment to give 1's to for no apparent reason.
Benni
2 / 5 (8) May 19, 2013
Could someone explain which part of fossil fuels is 'clean'?


Sure, natural gas is not a fossil fuel....but you get a pass for that mistake because it is not taught in your field of Economics studies, engineers working in the field do understand this however.

TheGhostofOtto1923
1.4 / 5 (18) May 19, 2013
Could someone explain which part of fossil fuels is 'clean'?


Sure, natural gas is not a fossil fuel....but you get a pass for that mistake because it is not taught in your field of Economics studies, engineers working in the field do understand this however
Are you being ignorant for the fun of it?

"Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include coal, petroleum, and natural gas. They range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates."
Estevan57
3.6 / 5 (28) May 19, 2013
MaiioBihzon, Deepsand - open is GhostofOtto1923.

If you disagree with his opinion in the comments section he will actually follow you and downvote you repeatedly.

He is also lite, who is recently inactive, but followed the same pattern.

He is antirelegious or philosophy, pro fracking is clean, believes cold fusion is just a moment away, etc.

Any disagreement with these and other view brings on the lite (open) brigade.
He does this with at least 12 people, including me. Have a pleasant day.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (16) May 19, 2013
Estevan is the poor little guy who is compelled to 1/5 every post I make, rain or shine. He is also the liar who pays little girls to stalk people for him. See my profile page for details.

Oh and as people can see, lite and open and such vermin like estevan himself frequently downrate me. At least the others have the dignity to remain silent.

Steve why do you bother to open your mouth? It must be embarrassing for you as it gives me yet one more opportunity to remind others what a fractured person you are.

Make like a baby-faced north korean despot and crawl back into your hole will you?
Estevan57
3.6 / 5 (28) May 19, 2013
Otto just HATES it when I out him.

By the way - I am neither poor nor little. And I have paid no little girls to stalk you.
There are only a couple votes from open on your profile. Hmmm.
I said Estevan was derived from Steve, not that my name was actually Steve. Or Estevan.

And why did lite disappear the same time open and toot showed up here?
Too many complaints?

Voting, especially down-voting while not commenting and remaining anonymous is hardly dignified. Quite the opposite. What a slimy practice.

Your sock-puppet patterns are pretty easy to figure out, Otto. Disagree with you - get a visit from the gang.

Troll.
Otto, toot, open - got an oral fixation? Or something a bit lower?
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (13) May 19, 2013
not that my name was actually Steve
Oh no of course not. Hey your apex site doesn't look so good on my iPhone. Text all mixed up, pics dont show. Better get IT to look at that.
Estevan57
3.6 / 5 (28) May 20, 2013
Not a bad guess! But we are a little further south. I'll tell Bill (not his real name) that his site doesn't show very well in i-phones. He runs a nice clean shop. Love the bunny suits.
deepsand
2.7 / 5 (26) May 20, 2013
MaiioBihzon, Deepsand - open is GhostofOtto1923.

If you disagree with his opinion in the comments section he will actually follow you and downvote you repeatedly.

He is also lite, who is recently inactive, but followed the same pattern.

He is antirelegious or philosophy, pro fracking is clean, believes cold fusion is just a moment away, etc.

Any disagreement with these and other view brings on the lite (open) brigade.
He does this with at least 12 people, including me. Have a pleasant day.

Why would GhostofOtto1923 surreptitiously give me 1s, and 1s only, in exchange for the 5s that I've given many of his posts. :confused:
MaiioBihzon
3.2 / 5 (25) May 20, 2013
Estevan57, deepsand ~

Thank you for the responses on that point.

I believe there is more than one individual registered on this site who enjoys following others around and down-rating those others with 1s out of pure spite. Some of us attract one or another of these charmers, while others receive attention from different cowardly persons.

What is cowardly about it (from my p.o.v.) is that such persons lack the courage to come out and declare, "I have down-rated you and here is why" (have seen a total of one person do this so far). Beyond the cowardice, there is the mean-spiritedness and pettiness of the activity. These are not nice people, these are not good people, these are not people worthy of my respect. They possess what I call "negative charm;" i.e., there is an ugliness inherent to their personalities.

Why would Ghost (or anyone) down-rate you, deepsand? Even when you favor his posts? Perhaps some folk are neither fair nor logical? No claim here, just an observation.
MaiioBihzon
3.1 / 5 (24) May 20, 2013
"Open" is clearly the sock-puppet for an active user on this site. I'm afraid I may be tempted to hand out 1s to whomever this user may be. I believe I have narrowed it down, but would like to get close to 90% certainty. Any help on determining the identity of the puppeteer would be appreciated, and I will, of course, share whatever information I have.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (14) May 20, 2013
Not a bad guess! But we are a little further south. I'll tell Bill (not his real name) that his site doesn't show very well in i-phones. He runs a nice clean shop. Love the bunny suits.
But as you are liar, who's to tell?

You are not smart enough to be stalking people on the Internet esai. Youre a compulsive braggart who cannot help but post personal info about yourself, your family, and your business. Better give the company back to your daddy before you ruin it.
some folk are neither fair nor logical
-nor very bright. Pussytard never did leave the site did she?
alan_mindbender
2.3 / 5 (3) May 20, 2013
It's entirely possible that a downvote is nothing more than a reflection of someone's disgust with how one person would address another, in a place of learning no less. I have done it, and I don't care to qualify a single incident. I am neither as educated as most here, nor as practiced in debate, but I do recognize a jerk when I see one. What some view as cowardice, the other side of the coin might just be that you really are disagreeable enough to not warrant any direct contact.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (13) May 20, 2013
someone's disgust with how one person would address another, in a place of learning no less. I have done it, and I don't care to qualify a single incident. I am neither as educated as most here, nor as practiced in debate, but I do recognize a jerk when I see one. What some view as cowardice, the other side of the coin might just be that you really are disagreeable enough to not warrant any direct contact.
Before forming an opinion please click on my user name and visit my profile page to see who are the troublemakers here and what they have to say.

Visit estevans comments and notice how each comment is about poor otto, who is only trying to educate and be educated here at physorg. Note the crud on his profile page and wonder about the sorry nature of his character. Ask why people like this wear goatees.

Google obama_socks, pirouette, ritchieguy, pussycat_eyes, russkiye and more (same person) for comments pertaining to flooding inanities and general disrespect.
antialias_physorg
3.2 / 5 (11) May 20, 2013
"Open" is clearly the sock-puppet for an active user on this site.

Sort of sad when people don't even use their own accounts to stand by their approval/disapproval of others. Hiding behind a second layer of anonymity - how much more cowardly can one get?

Even if it's not a sockpuppet: When it's the '1' votes it's pretty pathetic. I can understand that someone would give a high vote and not comment. But downvoting (which basically says the voter disagrees) and then NOT explaining why one disagrees - that's just absolutely pityful.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (14) May 20, 2013
"Open" is clearly the sock-puppet for an active user on this site.

Sort of sad when people don't even use their own accounts to stand by their approval/disapproval of others. Hiding behind a second layer of anonymity - how much more cowardly can one get?

Even if it's not a sockpuppet: When it's the '1' votes it's pretty pathetic. I can understand that someone would give a high vote and not comment. But downvoting (which basically says the voter disagrees) and then NOT explaining why one disagrees - that's just absolutely pityful.
Sometimes people might just think your rating is too high for your own good.

Say AA did you see my comment on 3D chemistry printing?
http://phys.org/n...ate.html

Eh? Eh?
MaiioBihzon
3.3 / 5 (24) May 20, 2013
Alan Mindbender:

"I do recognize a jerk when I see one. What some view as cowardice, the other side of the coin might just be that you really are disagreeable enough to not warrant any direct contact."

As I have had NO contact with you whatsoever, and have left civil posts on the site, I cannot imagine what prompted you to issue that insult. Am surprised that of your 2 posts in 2 years, you chose to use one for the purpose of attacking me. Had you done any research, you would see that I HAVE been followed around by "Open" and downvoted at nearly every opportunity.

More than one person here has outed "Open" as a sock-puppet operated by an active user here on this site. This is not imaginary, so your insult is uncalled-for. And now, since more than one sock is being used by the person behind "Open," your unprovoked name-calling naturally calls into question whether "Alan_Mindbender" is merely another sock.
MaiioBihzon
3.2 / 5 (22) May 20, 2013
Antialias:

Agreed. Vigorous down-rating without leaving a single written response is pretty lame. And I am confused why anyone here would be defending that activity. The goal of lowering the rating of a user on this site is indeed a sad and pathetic goal.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (13) May 20, 2013
As I have had NO contact with you whatsoever, and have left civil posts on the site, I cannot imagine what prompted you to issue that insult. Am surprised that of your 2 posts in 2 years, you chose to use one for the purpose of attacking me. Had you done any research, you would see that I HAVE been followed around by "Open" and downvoted at nearly every opportunity
Hmmm... Ever work for NASA? Direct or contract? Ever plant sweet sorghum? Ever suffer from dissociative identity disorder? No?

Im sure we'll figure this out-
Estevan57
3.5 / 5 (29) May 20, 2013
Congrats MaiioBihzon! You are the 100th person that Otto has accused of being Ritchieguy. Be prepared for obscure or abstruse references.
Best to change your name soonest. Otto will be your special friend forever.

I noticed that when outed as lite, open, toot, or others, Otto votes with his own name for a while.
How cute.

I suppose Otto will be Googling your past posts so he can downvote them with his army of sock-puppets. When he doesn't post as much as usual it often means he is doing this. I have seen it at least 5 times over the past year.

Now he will call me a liar as demonstrated in his profile page. I feel honored, his page used to be all about Ritchieguy, like in lites' profile page.

MaiioBihzon
3.2 / 5 (24) May 20, 2013
Estevan57:

Agree we are dealing with a very strange person here. And, yes, on my very next post (to "Field tests in Mojave Desert pave way for human exploration of small bodies"), Otto immediately showed up to downvote me and post a hostile rebuttal. So it appears I now have a follower. And following someone is something any one of us can easily do, merely by using the tools available to members of the community here.

That's fine. Having a life means I went out today, accomplished some things, got groceries, played music, laughed, saw a movie, drove with the top down and enjoyed the day. There is a lot that is outside of this site, and anyone seeking to harass me here must have been sorely disappointed by my absence. :-)
MaiioBihzon
3.2 / 5 (22) May 20, 2013
P.S.~

After the puppet-master showed up with his downvote, the puppet then followed with a downvote of his own. So your hypothesis has been confirmed.
antialias_physorg
4 / 5 (12) May 21, 2013
Sometimes people might just think your rating is too high for your own good.

So you're 'grudge rating' indpendent of content? Oh my. That is truly, truly pathetic. And with sockpuppets to boot. You, sir, are the pits.

And what do you (or anyone else...or I for that matter) care how high or low my approval rating is? Are you to judge above all others?Does your vote count more? Do you have to resort to ballot stuffing? THERE's your answer on how democratic you are - and now you cannot even refute it to yourself.

Say AA did you see my comment on 3D chemistry printing?

Yes. So?
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (16) May 21, 2013
truly pathetic
Otto gives you a single 1/5 and this is the response I get? As pussytard/Obama_socks/Ritchieguy/russkiye/racistblackguy/etcetc/?? used to say, 'take your meds'.
Yes. So?
Ah I see. You're feeling petulant because you found out there was something else you thought you knew, but did not.

Learning can be painful I know.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (15) May 21, 2013
http://atom-ecolo...i-fusion Italian Cold Fusion Tide Lifts All Boats. ARXIV IPaper Confirms Rossi Fusion.
-Depends on whether the world is ready for it or not. But since we are seeing it being developed NOW, Somebody who is in the Position to Know has already made that Decision.

Cultural destruction proceeds throughout southern Asia as we speak, the last bastion of religionism.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (15) May 21, 2013
What's the matter 'open'? Do you not read the papers? Cold fusion is real (and so is Empire.)
Are you to judge above all others?
Uh no I think that's what 'open' and his clones do.

"...they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today!"

-Obviously the character of some people warrant a uniform response and censure. People who disrespect the community by lying and flooding ignorant nonsense just to hear themselves talk, and who treat physorg like a chatroom.

And No I don't mean you.
antialias_physorg
3.5 / 5 (8) May 21, 2013
LOL, I'm downvoted quite systematically here in this way. You downvoted me many times in exactly the same way

And I explained why.
Spamming threads with irrelevant AWT/cold fusion BS gets downvoted as it is irrelevant to the discussion. And this was explained to you many, many, MANY times.
If there's others that have already pointed this out to you in that thread then it's no use repeating the criticism, is there?

Though you may have noticed that I've been ignoring your posts for quite some time.
MaiioBihzon
3.3 / 5 (26) May 21, 2013
Antialias, deepsand, Estevan57 and others:

Due to being recently outed here and in other places, a Ghost's puppet has been used to down-vote the Ghost itself. This is in a sad and transparent attempt to make it appear that the Ghost and the puppet (aka "open") are completely separate and unrelated to one another.

Notice: Until today, the Ghost has never been down-voted by "open" before.

Reminds me of Seinfeld: "When you want to make it look like you didn't hang up on someone, there's an easy way out -- hang up on yourself! Start talking and then, in the middle -- click."

The Ghost "hung up" on itself, hoping to hide the hand that moves the puppet.
antialias_physorg
4.2 / 5 (5) May 21, 2013
whether the plain investments into cold fusion research wouldn't be less demanding and more effective.

But you may have noticed that the articles posted here aren't about the investment in the research - but the results of the research. So if you have a problem with the results of the research: post away.
But if you have a problem with the investment in the reasearch then you're WAY off topic.

Otherwise you could as well spam this board with "why invest in this when we need to combat hunger in the world" in every thread. It would be EXACTLY as on topic as AWT/cold fusion (viz not at all).

Or one may spam the "love of god/truth" stuff - which is as much makebelieve as your pet theories. But it, too, is off topic.
ValeriaT
1 / 5 (9) May 21, 2013
"why invest in this when we need to combat hunger in the world"
Nope, the cold fusion would just help to combat with hunger. It would even help the mainstream science as a whole. Actually all scientists, who are fighting for grants and money during contemporary financial crisis are paying for lazy willful ignorance of physicists. Did you lost your home during subprime crisis? Well, it's because just physicists fucked the cold fusion research during last twenty if not fifty years - the financial crisis was initiated with high prices of oil, which is the direct consequence of cold fusion research ignorance.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (14) May 21, 2013
LOL, I'm downvoted quite systematically here in this way. You downvoted me many times in exactly the same way - so I don't understand just your whining in this matter. You're just a single huge barrel of hypocrisy.
Ahaahaaa well said. Remember when frajo and ethelred pbuh and skeptic heretic and arkaleus and trashymucknuts and the gang were all gangrating you and marjon? And where are they all now?
Spamming threads with irrelevant AWT/cold fusion BS gets downvoted as it is irrelevant to the discussion
-And so is, among MANY other things (see my profile page), pretending to be a NASA engineer and a nurse and a russian and a sweet sorghum farmer. In every thread. Crap gets down-voted. Consistent crap-posters will tend to be automatically downvoted by MANY people, like poor jigga here.

The tard named pussy promised to remain in at least 2 different posters. Why would you not expect it?

Cold fusion/LENR is real by the way - as I said you really ought to keep up.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1.3 / 5 (16) May 21, 2013
Notice: Until today, the Ghost has never been down-voted by "open" before
See AA? Why would some noob who has only been here a few days say something like this? And why are they here now attacking poor otto for no good reason?

Remember, if you feed it it will follow you home and then its whole family will be living in your garage and sacrificing chickens to 900 ft tall glassy-headed martians.
Neinsense99
2 / 5 (12) May 26, 2013
opinion is NOT science.

And recognition of irony is clearly not one of your strong points.

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(Phys.org) —Four freshmen at the University of Pennsylvania have taken Apple's personal assistant Siri to behave as a graduate-level executive assistant which, when asked, is capable of adjusting the temperature ...

Better thermal-imaging lens from waste sulfur

Sulfur left over from refining fossil fuels can be transformed into cheap, lightweight, plastic lenses for infrared devices, including night-vision goggles, a University of Arizona-led international team ...

Researchers discover target for treating dengue fever

Two recent papers by a University of Colorado School of Medicine researcher and colleagues may help scientists develop treatments or vaccines for Dengue fever, West Nile virus, Yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and other ...