Calculating phosphorus and calcium concentrations in meat and bone meal for pig diets

Apr 23, 2013

Following the drought of 2012, the prices of corn and soybean meal for livestock diets have increased significantly. In an effort to reduce their costs, pork producers are looking for alternative sources of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Researchers at the University of Illinois have developed equations for calculating the concentrations of these minerals in byproducts from the rendering industry.

Professor of Hans H. Stein and his team determined the digestibility of Ca and P in meat and bone meal (MBM), which is traditionally used as a source of protein in animal diets. MBM contains greater concentrations of Ca and P than all plant feed ingredients, so it can replace inorganic in swine diets without harming the bones or negatively affecting growth of the animals.

However, to use MBM effectively as a source of P and Ca, producers need an accurate assessment of the digestibility of these minerals when fed to pigs.

"There is quite a bit of variability in meat and bone meal, which is probably caused by different types of going into it," Stein said.

The researchers formulated eight diets using MBM from five companies in the United States. The ninth diet was P-free and was used to determine the endogenous losses of P from the animals. This value was used to calculate the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in the eight sources of MBM.

Results indicated that there is a negative correlation between ash content in MBM and digestibility of Ca and P, but all sources of MBM had a relatively high digestibility of Ca and P. Moreover, Ca and P concentrations varied two to four times more among the batches of MBM than protein and acid hydrolyzed ether extract concentrations. However, ash content had a highly significant positive correlation with Ca and P concentrations.

"Thus, if you know the concentration of ash, you can calculate the concentration of calcium and phosphorus," Stein said. "Ash is easy and inexpensive to analyze."

Stein and his team also developed equations to calculate Ca and P concentrations in MBM and proposed models for estimating STTD of P and Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD) of .

Explore further: Ideology prevents wheat growers from converting to more profitable methods, new study shows

More information: The equations are presented and the research described in detail in the article "Digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in meat and bone meal fed to growing pigs" by R. C. Sulabo and H. H. Stein, which was recently published in the Journal of Animal Sciences (2013.91:1285-1294) and is available online at www.journalofanimalscience.org… ntent/91/3/1285.long.

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Replacing soybean meal in pig diets

Feb 28, 2013

Canola, cottonseed, and sunflower products can replace soybean meal in diets fed to pigs, but they contain less protein and energy. To determine if it makes economic sense to use them, producers need to know the concentrations ...

Research sheds light on fat digestibility in pigs

Mar 07, 2011

Producers and feed companies add fat to swine diets to increase energy, but recent research from the University of Illinois suggests that measurements currently used for fat digestibility need to be updated.

Helping pigs to digest phosphorus

Jul 17, 2012

Phosphorus is a vital nutrient for pig growth, but pigs do not always digest it well. Research conducted at the University of Illinois has determined how adding various levels of the enzyme phytase to the diet improves how ...

Recommended for you

Devising a way to count proteins as they group

20 minutes ago

A new study from Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis and University of California Berkeley researchers reports on an innovative theoretical methodology to solve "the counting problem," which is key to understanding ...

Mysteries of 'molecular machines' revealed

1 hour ago

"Inside each cell in our bodies and inside every bacterium and virus are tiny but complex protein molecules that synthesize chemicals, replicate genetic material, turn each other on and off, and transport ...

User comments : 1

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

tekram
not rated yet Apr 23, 2013
These little piggies don't get BSE.
Feeding of MBM to cattle is thought to have been responsible for the spread of BSE (mad cow disease). In most parts of the world, MBM is no longer allowed in feed for ruminant animals. However, MBM is still used to feed monogastric animals. It is widely used in the United States as a low-cost meat in dog food and cat food.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.