After Higgs Boson, scientists prepare for next quantum leap

Feb 13, 2013 by Jonathan Fowler
A graphic distributed on July 4, 2012 by CERN in Geneva shows a representation of traces of a proton-proton collision measured in the search for the Higgs boson. Seven months after its scientists made a landmark discovery that may explain the mysteries of mass, Europe's top physics lab will take a break from smashing invisible particles to recharge for the next leap into the unknown.

Seven months after its scientists made a landmark discovery that may explain the mysteries of mass, Europe's top physics lab will take a break from smashing invisible particles to recharge for the next leap into the unknown.

From Thursday, the cutting-edge facilities at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) will begin winding down, then go offline on Saturday for an 18-month upgrade.

A vast underground lab straddling the border between France and Switzerland, CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was the scene of an extraordinary discovery announced in July 2012.

Its scientists said they were 99.9 percent certain they had found the elusive Higgs Boson, an invisible particle without which, theorists say, humans and all the other joined-up atoms in the Universe would not exist.

The upgrade will boost the LHC's , essential for CERN to confirm definitively that its boson is the Higgs, and allow it to probe new dimensions such as supersymmetry and dark matter.

"The aim is to open the discovery domain," said Frederick Bordry, head of CERN's technology department.

"We have what we think is the Higgs, and now we have all the theories about supersymmetry and so on. We need to increase the energy to look at more physics. It's about going into terra incognita (unknown territory)," he told AFP.

Theorised back in 1964, the boson also known as the carries the name of a British physicist, Peter Higgs.

He calculated that a field of bosons could explain a nagging anomaly: Why do some particles have mass while others, such as light, have none?

That question was a gaping hole in the , a conceptual framework for understanding the nuts-and-bolts of the cosmos.

One idea is that the Higgs was born when the new Universe cooled after the Big Bang some 14 billion years ago.

It is believed to act like a fork dipped in honey and held up in dusty air.

Most of the dust particles interact with the honey, acquiring some of its mass to varying degrees, but a few slip through and do not acquire any. With mass comes gravity—and its pulling power brings particles together.

Supersymmetry, meanwhile, is the notion that there are novel particles which are the opposite number of each of the known particle actors in the Standard Model.

This may, in turn, explain the existence of dark matter—a hypothetical construct that can only be perceived indirectly via its gravitational pull, yet is thought to make up around 25 percent of the Universe.

At a cost of 6.03 billion Swiss francs (4.9 billion euros, $6.56 billion dollars), the LHC was constructed in a 26.6-kilometre (16.5-mile) circular tunnel originally occupied by its predecessor, the Large Electron Positron (LEP).

That had run in cycles of about seven months followed by a five-month shutdown, but the LHC, opened in 2008, has been pushed well beyond.

"We've had full operations for three years, 2010, 2011 and 2012," said Bordry.

"Initially we thought we'd have the long shutdown in 2012, but in 2011, with some good results and with the perspective of discovering the boson, we pushed the long shutdown back by a year. But we said that in 2013 we must do it."

Unlike the LEP, which was used to accelerate electrons or positrons, the LHC crashes together protons, which are part of the hadron family.

"The game is about smashing the particles together to transform this energy into mass. With high energy, they are transformed into new particles and we observe these new and try to understand things," Bordry explained.

"It's about recreating the first microsecond of the universe, the Big Bang. We are reproducing in a lab the conditions we had at the start of the Big Bang."

Over the past three years, CERN has slammed protons together more than six million billion times.

Five billion collisions yielded results deemed worthy of further research and data from only 400 threw up data that paved the road to the .

Despite the shutdown, CERN's researchers won't be taking a breather, as they must trawl through a vast mound of data.

"I think a year from now, we'll have more information on the data accumulated over the past three years," said Bordry. "Maybe the conclusion will be that we need more data!"

Last year, the LHC achieved a collision energy level of eight teraelectron volts, an energy measure used in particle physics—up from seven in 2011.

After it comes back online in 2015, the goal is to take that level to 13 or even 14, with the LHC expected to run for three or four years before another shutdown.

The net cost of the upgrade is expected to be up to 50 million Swiss francs.

CERN's member states are European, but the prestigious organisation has global reach. India, Japan, Russia and the United States participate as observers.

Explore further: Neutrino trident production may offer powerful probe of new physics

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baudrunner
1.4 / 5 (30) Feb 13, 2013
We need to increase the energy to look at more physics. It's about going into terra incognita (unknown territory)," he told AFP.
Yeah, then let's just keep blowin' things up real good!
If he doesn't know where he's going, then he doesn't know what he's doing.
And I thought we'd cleared up that photon isn't a particle so much as a quanta of pressure tickling the photo receptors on the surface of our retinas, that one would constitute a half cycle of a wave. Where does particle even enter into it? Particles don't become particles until they are fully separated from the photon background.
The things I could do with all that money.
Disproselyte
3.8 / 5 (25) Feb 13, 2013
Why do some physicists see really every thing dark? This money is peanuts compared to military expenses, arguably necessary to prevent others to do even more stupid things, and has a lot of spin-offs, gives a hell of a lot correct people interesting work, stimulates peaceful international collaboration and helps to increase our knowledge of nature. No, this money is not for individualists always complaining of complots.
TheGhostofOtto1923
3.5 / 5 (20) Feb 13, 2013
They need to get in there and sweep up all the little black holes and strangelets and loose change and monopoles and stuff.
JIMBO
1.9 / 5 (13) Feb 13, 2013
This is wishful-hype by Howie. LHC closed out the parameter space up to ~800Gev, & SUSY theorists predict that if its not seen at around a Tev, SUSY is Toast ! String theory sans SUSY suffocates to death as well. In addition, no black holes have been seen at LHC, so A new breath of fresh air must enter physics soon.
Rosser
3.7 / 5 (18) Feb 13, 2013
I really wish this article hadn't used the term "God particle". It's inaccurate and trite. I thought only Fox News still referred to the Higgs boson by this name.
rkolter
4.4 / 5 (8) Feb 13, 2013
They need to get in there and sweep up all the little black holes and strangelets and loose change and monopoles and stuff.


I laughed out loud at this, thank you. :)
vacuum-mechanics
1.6 / 5 (14) Feb 13, 2013
After Higgs Boson, scientists prepare for next quantum leap …
"We have what we think is the Higgs…. the boson also known as the God Particle….

It was told that the reason we called 'God particle' because we could find it, but we do not know what it is! May be it is the right time to stop for a while and consider 'how God (nature) do his job' (which is of course he is not a magician) as could be visualized here…
http://www.vacuum...=9〈=en
typicalguy
3.6 / 5 (17) Feb 13, 2013
Funny story, I was talking to a tea party conservative and he told me that government needs to get out of science and let the private sector take over. He went on to explain that the space station is a waste of money and should be deorbited and burned up in the atmosphere sooner than planned.

Long story short, I suggested the "fiscally conservative" thing to do would be to not waste all that money that was spent on it so we should just give it to China and Russia and we should have no ownership of it. Oddly he didn't want to do that. If science is bad for our economy (according to him) shouldn't it be bad for their economies too? Why does he care if their economy is hurt?

Tongue in cheek questions but I think I got the point across.
Maggnus
3.2 / 5 (11) Feb 13, 2013
Tongue in cheek questions but I think I got the point across


Funny indeed! Well done :)
brt
2.7 / 5 (12) Feb 13, 2013
Every explanation I hear of the higgs boson and higgs field just falls flat on its face. I think it's one of those things you just can't dumb down without completely loosing meaning. "like a fork dipped in honey collecting dust"...WHAT?! what the hell does that mean?!

Does Peter Higgs even know how to explain it?
Nanowill
1.5 / 5 (15) Feb 13, 2013
This is really getting ridiculous. There is no mystery to mass there is only ignorance. Particles are localized EM energy (Dirac). EM energy only propagates rectilinearly (Einstein), so to form a particle it has to move in a curved metric of closed geometry at the particle scale. The curved metric is the origin of gravity (General Relativity). We note the gravity and say "Ah! There must be mass! Nonsense. Mass does not generate gravity, the presence of gravity leads to the notion of mass. All that actually exists is EM energy in curved metrics. Is the problem the scaling factor between the EM energy and the mass? No, we know E/c^2 = m. The real problem is thinking mass exists as "stuff" and G is a natural constant. Both completely wrong.
It's bad physics and very misleading to keep saying the Higgs has anything to do with mass. Spinning absurd fantasy to try and get more funding?
Need more? See "Rethinking Physics" at Redleadbooks.com
VendicarE
2 / 5 (4) Feb 13, 2013
Wait a second.

That is the same graphic they used for the Higgs Bozon.
VendicarE
3.5 / 5 (11) Feb 14, 2013
How do localized particles manage to pass through two different slits at the same time?

"Particles are localized EM energy " - Nanowill

How local is local?

"EM energy only propagates rectilinearly" - NanoWill

They why do beams of light diffract when they pass through small holes that have a diameter on the order of their wavelength.

Why does light diffract around corners?

"The curved metric is the origin of gravity" - NanoWill

Why do variances in the local energy density determine the amount of curvature in the metric?

"Mass does not generate gravity, the presence of gravity leads to the notion of mass." - Nanowill

Then what aspect of matter/energy causes space to curve?

"All that actually exists is EM energy in curved metrics" - Nanowill

Then what force holds the neutron in a nucleus?

"We know that E/c^2 = m" - Nanowill

Then how do you explain the self energy of gravitation?

VendicarE
2.5 / 5 (8) Feb 14, 2013
If you don't know algebra, then it is very difficult to solve differential equations.

"Every explanation I hear of the higgs boson and higgs field just falls flat on its face." - Brt

With the higgs mechanism, mass is produced by a constant scalar field through the process of particle scattering off of that field. Those particles that couple strongly with the field, scatter the most strongly and hence are the most difficult to push though the field.

The field only manifests against a particles bare change of momentum (no mass) so acceleration and not velocity are retarded.
ant_oacute_nio354
1.9 / 5 (9) Feb 14, 2013
The Higgs doesn't exist.
The mass is an electric dipole moment:

m = q.k /x (1-pi^3.alpha^2 /2)

m-mass;q-electron charge;k-Boltzmann constant;x-Compton wavelength;pi=3.1415927;alpha-fine structure constant
The mass is an electric dipole moment. Boltzmann constant has units length squared.

Antonio Jose de Pinho Saraiva
neversaidit
2.5 / 5 (6) Feb 14, 2013
can we also stop using the phrase "quantum leap"? t'was more of a galactic jump.
jsdarkdestruction
3.5 / 5 (8) Feb 14, 2013
Nothing like "higgs boson" in the title of an article to draw the cranks in.

I look forward to the information we will aqquire with this newly updated lhc when it starts back up in a year and a half.
brt
2.7 / 5 (7) Feb 14, 2013
If you don't know algebra, then it is very difficult to solve differential equations.

"Every explanation I hear of the higgs boson and higgs field just falls flat on its face." - Brt

With the higgs mechanism, mass is produced by a constant scalar field through the process of particle scattering off of that field. Those particles that couple strongly with the field, scatter the most strongly and hence are the most difficult to push though the field.

The field only manifests against a particles bare change of momentum (no mass) so acceleration and not velocity are retarded.


I'm not saying I don't understand it, I'm saying that's not a good way to describe the higgs field.
sennekuyl
2.5 / 5 (4) Feb 14, 2013
can we also stop using the phrase "quantum leap"? t'was more of a galactic jump.

Probably the first time in a long time a quantum leap has been used accurately. We aren't trying to leap vast distances, we're trying to get in between smaller discreet points. (Yeah, it doesn't quite work out to take the opposite of a 'galactic' leap... ah weel)
ant_oacute_nio354
1.5 / 5 (13) Feb 14, 2013
THE HIGGS DOESN'T EXIST!
MASS IS AN ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT.

ANTONIO JOSE SARAIVA
Nanowill
1.6 / 5 (7) Feb 14, 2013
How do localized particles manage to pass through two different slits at the same time? "Particles are localized EM energy " - Nanowill How local is local?
"EM energy only propagates rectilinearly" - NanoWill
They why do beams of light diffract when they pass through small holes that have a diameter on the order of their wavelength.
Why does light diffract around corners?
"The curved metric is the origin of gravity" - NanoWill
Why do variances in the local energy density determine the amount of curvature in the metric?
"Mass does not generate gravity, the presence of gravity leads to the notion of mass." - Nanowill
Then what aspect of matter/energy causes space to curve?
"All that actually exists is EM energy in curved metrics" - Nanowill Then what force holds the neutron in a nucleus?
"We know that E/c^2 = m" -
Then how do you explain the self energy of gravitation?
A
EM energy = waves, particles are waves localized in orbits of one wavelength, about 10^-15m.Quantum loops
Otto_Krog
2.2 / 5 (6) Feb 17, 2013
I don't think the qualities required for The Higgs particle to explain the standard model is there, and I don't think they will be found.

My idea is that antimatter is the mirror of this universe, and that antimatter might be where memory is located.

I think that the subconscious mind and consciousness are located in mental multiverse dimensions in the form of antimatter.

The original standard model predict
SethD
1.7 / 5 (11) Feb 17, 2013
This: "After Higgs Boson, scientists PREPARE FOR NEXT quantum leap", and this: "Seven months after its scientists made a landmark discovery that MAY explain...", says they threw the towel in, finally.

Cheers to that. Hopefully they never find financiers naive enough to pay for turning their toy-washer on again.
VendicarE
2 / 5 (4) Feb 17, 2013
SethD is very upset that he doesn't understand science.

He deserves his life of ditch digging.
SethD
1.7 / 5 (11) Feb 17, 2013
SethD is very upset that he doesn't understand science.

He deserves his life of ditch digging.

You mean like what Edison made Tesla do? No thanks. LOL

I know my science better than anyone on this forum. Keep trying.
SethD
1.7 / 5 (11) Feb 17, 2013
This: "After Higgs Boson, scientists PREPARE FOR NEXT quantum leap", and this: "Seven months after its scientists made a landmark discovery that MAY explain..." says they threw the towel in, finally.

Cheers to that. Hopefully they never find financiers naive enough to pay for turning their toy-washer on again.

Just last month, the money-laundry's director said in his interview: http://phys.org/n...ml#nRlv, that "The world should know with certainty by the MIDDLE OF THIS YEAR..."

What a giant leap for you intellectual midgets on $ steroids, to hurry up and invent within a month-time another giant lie & write up articles like this one we're commenting. Oops.

You're the world's most evil bunch ever, so versed in manipulating the public it's not even funny. Particle physicists and their quantum buddies in crime, gathered around the LHC money-laundry.

Come one, come all - there's bribe for just about anyone who comes along... not.

LOL
VendicarE
2.3 / 5 (3) Feb 17, 2013
What is it about particle physics that brings out the kooks and the retards like SethD?

"Particle physicists and their quantum buddies in crime, gathered around the LHC money-laundry." - SethD

We sympathies with you Seth.

Now get some psychological help. You seriously need it.

VendicarE
2.3 / 5 (3) Feb 17, 2013
I wasn't aware that Edison made Tesla dig any ditches.

Where are they, and where were they dug?

"You mean like what Edison made Tesla do?" - SethD

Get back on your meds Seth/UbVonTard.
VendicarE
2.7 / 5 (3) Feb 17, 2013
"Why does light diffract around corners?"

"The curved metric is the origin of gravity" - NanoWill

So gravity causes edge diffraction?

How is that possible when the mass of the material comprising the slit doesn't alter the effect of the slit?

What aspect of matter/energy causes space to curve?

How do you explain the self energy of gravitation?

"EM energy = waves, particles are waves localized in orbits of one wavelength" - NanaoWill

Then how do slits separated by distances much larger than atomic radii produce interference?
sirchick
3 / 5 (2) Feb 18, 2013

The things I could do with all that money.


Not alot ... .we spent more money bailing out the banks in a single year than science has had funding since Jesus (and that just the Uk).

This is a quote from the news the other month... when you put things into perspective.. LHC is not that expensive.

We also got the world wide web from developing the LHC which has given the world more than the money we have put into their projects.

You can't put a price on knowledge/freedom that the world wide web has provided. Even if the governments are now trying to control it more.