NASA joins ESA's 'dark universe' mission

Jan 24, 2013
Euclid. Credit: ESA

(Phys.org)—NASA has officially joined ESA's Euclid mission, a space telescope designed to investigate the mysterious natures of dark matter and dark energy.

To be launched in 2020, Euclid's 1.2 m-diameter telescope and two scientific instruments will map the shape, brightness and 3D distribution of two billion galaxies covering more than a third of the whole sky and looking back over three-quarters of the history of the Universe.

Scientists hope to solve key problems in our understanding of the evolution and fate of our expanding cosmos: the roles played by 'dark matter' and 'dark energy'.

Dark matter is invisible, but has gravity and acts to slow the expansion. Dark energy, however, seems to be accelerating the expansion seen around us today.

Together, these two components are thought to comprise more than 95% of the mass and energy of the Universe, with 'normal' matter and energy making up the remaining small fraction. But what they are remains a profound mystery.

NASA recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding with ESA outlining its contribution to the mission. The US agency will provide 20 detectors for the near-infrared instrument, which will operate alongside a visible-wavelength camera. The instruments, telescope and spacecraft will be built and operated in Europe.

NASA has also nominated 40 US scientists to become members of the Euclid Consortium, who will build the instruments and analyse the returned from the mission. The consortium already includes almost 1000 scientists from 13 European countries and the US.

"ESA's Euclid mission is designed to probe one of the most fundamental questions in modern cosmology, and we welcome NASA's contribution to this important endeavour, the most recent in a long history of cooperation in between our two agencies," said Alvaro Giménez Cañete, ESA's Director of Science and .

"NASA is very proud to contribute to ESA's mission to understand perhaps the greatest science mystery of our time," said John Grunsfeld, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

Euclid is optimised to answer one of the most important questions in modern cosmology: why is the Universe expanding at an accelerating rate, rather than slowing down due to the gravitational attraction of all the matter in it?

The discovery of this cosmic acceleration in 1998 by teams of US, European and other international scientists was rewarded with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2011, and yet we still do not know what causes it.

The term '' is often used to signify the mysterious force driving the acceleration. By using Euclid to study its effects on galaxies and galaxy clusters across the Universe, astronomers hope to come much closer to understanding its true nature and influence.

"The official signing of the Memorandum is a positive step for the Euclid and we're looking forward to welcoming our US colleagues onto the team," said René Laureijs, ESA's Euclid project scientist.

Explore further: Video reveals dramatic Spacex falcon rocket barge landing and launch

Related Stories

Euclid and the geometry of the dark universe

Jun 22, 2012

Euclid, an exciting new mission to map the geometry, distribution and evolution of dark energy and dark matter has just been formally adopted by ESA as part of their Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 progamme. Name ...

'Dark energy' targeted in European space mission

Oct 04, 2011

So-called dark energy, believed to play a role in the accelerated expansion of the Universe, will be studied in a major science mission to be launched later this decade, the European Space Agency (ESA) said ...

ESA chooses 3 scientific missions for further study

Feb 19, 2010

Dark energy, habitable planets around other stars, and the mysterious nature of our own Sun, have been chosen by ESA as candidates for two medium-class missions to be launched no earlier than 2017.

Nature of universe is still a mystery to Nobel winners

Oct 04, 2011

They won the Nobel Prize for changing our understanding of the universe, but their discovery left an even larger mystery -- what is this dark energy that is propelling the universe to expand so fast? ...

Recommended for you

Ceres' bright spots come back into view

1 hour ago

The two brightest spots on dwarf planet Ceres, which have fascinated scientists for months, are back in view in the newest images from NASA's Dawn spacecraft. Dawn took these images on April 14 and 15 from ...

Vesta—Ceres' little sister

3 hours ago

Only around 60 million kilometres closer to the Sun than Ceres, another large rock is orbiting in the remote asteroid belt: Vesta. Although its diameter of approximately 530 kilometres makes it a bit too ...

Curiosity rover making tracks and observations

Apr 20, 2015

NASA's Curiosity Mars rover is continuing science observations while on the move this month. On April 16, the mission passed 10 kilometers (6.214 miles) of total driving since its 2012 landing, including ...

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.