Mathematical breakthrough sets out rules for more effective teleportation

Jan 16, 2013

For the last ten years, have shown that the intense connections generated between particles as established in the quantum law of 'entanglement' may hold the key to eventual teleportation of .

Now, for the first time, researchers have worked out how entanglement could be 'recycled' to increase the efficiency of these connections. Published in the journal , the result could conceivably take us a step closer to sci-fi style teleportation in the future, although this research is purely theoretical in nature.

The team have also devised a generalised form of teleportation, which allows for a wide variety of potential applications in .

Once considered impossible, in 1993 a team of scientists calculated that teleportation could work in principle using quantum laws. harnesses the 'entanglement' law to transmit particle-sized bites of information across potentially vast distances in an instant.

Read Phys.org feature story: Entanglement recycling makes teleportation more practical

Entanglement involves a pair of such as or that are intrinsically bound together, retaining synchronisation between the two that holds whether the particles are next to each other or on opposing sides of a galaxy. Through this connection, of information - qubits - can be relayed using only traditional forms of classical communication.

Previous teleportation protocols, have fallen into one of two camps, those that could only send scrambled information requiring correction by the receiver, or more recently, "port-based" teleportation that doesn't require a correction, but needed an impractical amount of entanglement – each object sent would destroy the entangled state.

Now, physicists from Cambridge, University College London, and the University of Gdansk have developed a protocol to provide an optimal solution in which the entangled state is 'recycled', so that the gateway between holds for the teleportation of multiple objects.

They have even devised a protocol in which multiple qubits can be teleported simultaneously, although the entangled state degrades proportionally to the amount of sent in both cases.

"The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting states, and the second teleports them in a bulk," said Sergii Strelchuck from Cambridge's Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, who led the research with colleagues Jonathan Oppenheim of Cambridge and UCL and Michal Horodecki of the University of Gdansk.

"We have also found a generalised teleportation technique which we hope will find applications in areas such as quantum computation."

Einstein famously loathed the theory of quantum entanglement, dismissing it as "spooky action at a distance". But entanglement has since been proven to be a very real feature of our universe, and one that has extraordinary potential to advance all manner of scientific endeavor.

"There is a close connection between teleportation and quantum computers, which are devices which exploit quantum mechanics to perform computations which would not be feasible on a classical computer," said Strelchuck.

"Building a quantum computer is one of the great challenges of modern physics, and it is hoped that the new teleportation protocol will lead to advances in this area."

While the Cambridge physicists' protocol is completely theoretical, last year a team of Chinese scientists reported teleporting photons over 143km, breaking previous records, and quantum entanglement is increasingly seen as an important area of scientific investment. Teleportation of information carried by single atoms is feasible with current technologies, but the teleportation of large objects - such as Captain Kirk - remains in the realm of science fiction.

Adds Strelchuck: "Entanglement can be thought of as the fuel, which powers teleportation. Our protocol is more fuel efficient, able to use entanglement thriftily while eliminating the need for error correction."

Explore further: An optomechanical crystal to study interactions among colocalized photons and phonons

More information: The paper 'Generalized teleportation and entanglement recycling' can be viewed here: arxiv.org/abs/1209.2683

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S_Bilderback
4 / 5 (6) Jan 16, 2013
This is the first and last time for this!

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antialias_physorg
3.5 / 5 (16) Jan 16, 2013
Before anyone jumps in on this.
No: Quantum teleportation isn't FTL information transmission. I know the term 'teleportation' is misleading. But the entangled entities do travle at (sub) light speeds to where they are read and you cannot IMPRINT information on one after entanglement and separation that will magically appear on the other.
Antoweif
1.9 / 5 (13) Jan 16, 2013
But the entangled entities do travle at (sub) light speeds to where they are read ...


You believe in fuzzy science? You have my pity.
Eikka
3.6 / 5 (9) Jan 16, 2013
The classical example is an entangled pair of photons where each photon necessarily assumes the state opposite to its partner.

If that's the way teleportation works, then I want to know if my counterpart that comes out of the other end of the teleporter will have a beard?
Pressure2
1.9 / 5 (13) Jan 16, 2013
Just another nonsense article published at this site. In plain English, garbage.
kochevnik
3.5 / 5 (8) Jan 16, 2013
Just another nonsense article published at this site. In plain English, garbage.
You have a better teleportation scheme, Pressure2?
Pressure2
1.6 / 5 (14) Jan 16, 2013
Just another nonsense article published at this site. In plain English, garbage.
You have a better teleportation scheme, Pressure2?

No I do not because this teleportation idea is nothing but fantasy land, science fiction.
Soylent_Grin
4.1 / 5 (9) Jan 16, 2013
No I do not because this teleportation idea is nothing but fantasy land, science fiction.

Sounds like someone still thinks teleportation is Star Trek like matter transference.
It's information transfer, dude. Is electron tunneling sci fi where you come from too?
Given that it has been physically demonstrated (what was the record? 60km?), calling it fantasy takes a great deal of foolhardy.
sirchick
4.6 / 5 (10) Jan 16, 2013
This is the first and last time for this!



Its not the physorg its the adverts or your infected making it look like google is blocking you - everything is clean here. I'm a web developer so I know how to check if there is no malicious code any where in the source code.
Just get adblock.
Tektrix
3.9 / 5 (7) Jan 16, 2013
"Teleportation" in this context means, "indistinguishable from the original." It is a sort of "resetting values via spooky action, to match your partner" deal.
NotAsleep
4.4 / 5 (7) Jan 16, 2013
Information, just like everything else in our universe, can't defy relativity under our current model of physics. Teleportation is a misleading word to use in this article and in the source article.

Teleportation: to transport across a distance instantaneously

That's currently science fiction. Regardless of how they used the word, you won't find in a reputable article anywhere that matter/energy was transported instantly from one place to another. That's not how quantum entanglement works
antialias_physorg
4 / 5 (8) Jan 16, 2013
It's information transfer, dude.

No it is not. The states are entangled. Measuring one will get you the state of the other.
Information transfer means that you ENCODE the information at the one end and then RETRIEVE the information at the other (in information theory parlance this means: a priori and a posteriori states are known)

Entanglement does not allow for knowing the a priori settings. For that you would need to measure the state before you separate the entangled entities - and that measurement breaks the entanglement. So this is NOT information transmission but 'merely' quantum teleportation.
Erik
4.2 / 5 (5) Jan 16, 2013
They'll never be able to teleport Capt Kirk. His ego is too big to fit through the transporter! ;-)
Sean_W
1.8 / 5 (10) Jan 16, 2013
"the result could conceivably take us a step closer to sci-fi style teleportation in the future, although this research is purely theoretical in nature."


I would have used the word "speculative" in place of "theoretical" but that's me. The only thing scientists seem willing to propose is that quantum teleportation *might* be used in quantum computing--eventually. They seem demonstrably unconvinced that anything like sci-fi teleportation should be hoped for based on this sort of work.
LarryD
2.5 / 5 (8) Jan 16, 2013
Beam me up Scotty is still, and in my opinion, will remain so for many years to come, science fiction. But perhaps that isn't the point. It's the challenge, and nothing us on better than 'the impossible dream'. This is our basic nature, the airplane, air trip across the Atlantic, sound barrier, going to the Moon; they were all dreams. I remember working with a 64K desktop which was only a dream when I was a boy. Today 64K wouldn't even be enough for many 'clip art' pictures.
I don't think of the Universe as the final frontier, the Quantum Realm is! We are able to see Stars, Galaxies etc but not the Quantum realm. 'Beam me up Scotty' may never happen but who knows what discoveries will be made by trying to achieve it. Don't forget also an 'entangled state' only describes the situation at a given moment but says nothing about the dynamics of the system and it the dynamics that we need to understand before we can proceed. Perhaps this article describes a step in the right direction.
LarryD
2.7 / 5 (7) Jan 16, 2013
Sorry, 3rd line should read "... nothing spurs us on...
baudrunner
1.8 / 5 (12) Jan 16, 2013
Teleportation of matter will someday become reality - in the distant future. The groundwork for developing an understanding of the theory behind matter teleportation is being laid today. What must be understood is that time cannot be involved, that is, the process is literally instantaneous, and that there are limitations to the process which must be respected.
Soylent_Grin
3 / 5 (2) Jan 17, 2013
Measuring one will get you the state of the other.

And measuring breaks the entanglement. Hm.

How about being able to send a one shot message? No, you wouldn't be able to tell if the state changed without measuring. You would know if the signal was sent, but not when, and if it hadn't been sent, you won't be able to tell now. Hm.

There has got to be a way out of this...
AmritSorli
1.5 / 5 (8) Jan 17, 2013
The whole point of entanglement is that fundamental arena of the universe is not 4D space-time but a 3D concrete physical space build up from the Planck Volumes. At the scale of Planck Volume information transfer is immediate. At the scale of photon information transfer has a light speed. Easy but not to easy.
Grallen
3.7 / 5 (3) Jan 17, 2013
The experiments to determine whether or not superluminal communication via entanglement is possible are yet to come. It might be best to avoid stating it as fact in either direction until then.

It is important to state though that the odds are against it. Doesn't mean there might not be an upset.
Ducklet
2.2 / 5 (9) Jan 17, 2013
Quantum teleportation isn't about transmitting information instantly. It's about using entanglement to perfectly replicate a third particle that's unrelated to the two entangled particles remotely. However, the state is still transmitted using plain old comm links. Basically it's a way to transfer a particle from point A to point B. It's teleportation in the sense that an object (the particle) is destroyed and reconstructed elsewhere. It's not, however, faster than light.
DavidW
2.2 / 5 (10) Jan 17, 2013
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taka
1.6 / 5 (7) Jan 17, 2013
That entangled objects can exchange information instantly was proven already long time, but it was believed that this require collapse of entanglement. That quantum state can be fully measured without collapsing it was proven recently. That invalidate the long hold belief that this is fundamentally impossible. The Copenhagen interpretation is proven wrong. From these two facts it is immediate consequence that information can be sent instantly between entangled objects. Technically there is Wormhole between them.

That is not teleportation as it is usually defined. First, no material object cannot be sent. Second, entangled object has to be sent first to create a channel. That is usual slower or equal then light speed transport (Wormhole mouth is transported).

I do not believe that there are just some extra dimensions used. There seem to be something all our space and his dimensions are created from, something that is not space at all.
antialias_physorg
3.3 / 5 (7) Jan 17, 2013
How about being able to send a one shot message?

No. The way people think this works is to do it like this:
Entangle entities.
Separate them and THEN encode something on one of them (by interaction which SETS it to a definite state - which is a measurement AND a modulation).
But that breaks entanglement. The other entity is not affected by the modulation (read: the encoding action does not alter the far away entity in any way)

Hence you would not know that the signal was sent at all.

What you CAN do with entaglement is encryption. Send a stream of information modulo the state of the entangled entity (as measured after separation) at the source. Then modulo the information stream with the state of the entangled entity (as measured at the destination) to get the original information back.

This is a very subtle piece of business in information theory, since encryption does not add information (the bit value of an encrypted message is identical to the plain message).
antialias_physorg
2.5 / 5 (4) Jan 17, 2013
There has got to be a way out of this...

Unfortunately there does not seem to be (at least with entaglement). Which is also sorta good because it would mean that causality could be violated.

Now if FTL travel via other (very hypothetical) means like Alcubierre drives or wormholes is a possibility then all bets are off.
gwrede
2.1 / 5 (7) Jan 17, 2013
While the Cambridge physicists' protocol is completely theoretical, last year a team of Chinese scientists reported teleporting photons over 143km, breaking previous records
I wonder what that actually means.
antialias_physorg
2.6 / 5 (5) Jan 17, 2013
I wonder what that actually means.

It 'simply' means that they created an entangled entity.
Then separated it by 143km.
Then showed that they were entangled by measurement at each end.

This is no mean feat, as any (even inadvertent) interaction with an entangled entity along the way would constitute a 'measurement' and break the entanglement.

The importance of such experiments is: Hhow far can you, safely, transport entangled entities before you have to build in repeaters? This in turn directly translates into costs for building networks (e.g. for secure encryption between banks)
omerbashich
1.4 / 5 (9) Jan 17, 2013
Not again, the time/space-travel mambo-jumbo right out of Star Trek.
At the same time, on Earth: "How Wineland & Haroche Stole My Discovery (and got 2012 PHYSICS NOBEL PRIZE for it...)"
https://sites.goo...ci#Nobel
taka
1.6 / 5 (7) Jan 17, 2013
You can modulate state of one entangled object without breaking entanglement and measure the other also without breaking entanglement. If you do it gently of course. It was long hold dogma that this is absolutely impossible, but now that is proved to be false.
omerbashich
1.4 / 5 (9) Jan 17, 2013
You can modulate state of one entangled object without breaking entanglement and measure the other also without breaking entanglement. If you do it gently of course. It was long hold dogma that this is absolutely impossible, but now that is proved to be false.

So it shouldn't be called the same as the originally proposed phenomenon then. It was obviously never a real phenomenon to begin with, but a temporary poorly coined label. Sort of a "dark matter" sophism, just for tiny scales. Physicist often cheat like that so that politicians can't catch them ripping tax payers off. It should be renamed to disentanglement as that's what that idiocy is.

Oh no, how would we rob tax payers then...
NotAsleep
2.3 / 5 (3) Jan 17, 2013
You can modulate state of one entangled object without breaking entanglement and measure the other also without breaking entanglement. If you do it gently of course. It was long hold dogma that this is absolutely impossible, but now that is proved to be false.

Do you have several reputable source articles to back up this claim? It would defy relativity and therefore change our fundamental understanding of physics, something that would make nationwide news and send government agencies scrambling to replicate. I haven't seen this news or these articles but perhaps I've been living under a rock while the research has taken place.

It was long held dogma that calling something "long held dogma" meant it was false. So far, the dogma of relativity has proven otherwise
Flatlanders
not rated yet Jan 20, 2013
I would like to note that Captain Kirk has increased in mass significantly relative to time.

I am waiting on the algorithm that can extrapolate the slim Captain Kirk out of the teleportation of the fat Captain Kirk through the selective reduction of very specific particle entanglements which will bring about instant weight loss clinics
antialias_physorg
3 / 5 (6) Jan 20, 2013
Physicist often cheat like that

No. It's readers who don't bother to learn the fundamentals and then take what is presented out of context. THOSE people are the problem.

Science requires that people know what they are talking about. If people think they know what 'teleportation' means based on having watched an episode of Star Trek...and then think that enables them to comment on/understand science - then they're just fooling themselves.

ESPECIALLY if they then rant about 'physicists trying to cheat them'.

Grow up. Read a book. Then comment on science.
omerbashich
1.4 / 5 (9) Jan 21, 2013
Physicist often cheat like that

No. It's readers who don't bother to learn the fundamentals and then take what is presented out of context. THOSE people are the problem.

Ha, look who got frustrated, a physics student and Obama voter. Wouldn't you love to form a committee, repossess the goods of them "stinky ignorant people", and use it for "higher causes".

Imagine if sane people "grew up" and let lab Nazis like you take over...
antialias_physorg
2.3 / 5 (3) Jan 21, 2013
Ha, look who got frustrated, a physics student and Obama voter.

Bzzzt. I'm neither a physics student nor did I vote for Obama (which would have been a neat trick, since I'm not even a US citizen.)

Wouldn't you love to form a committee, repossess the goods of them "stinky ignorant people", and use it for "higher causes".

No. Why would I?

I do think that a society is not for free. And that a society is also a chance to have some things which individuals could not have (safety nets like police, firedepartments, health care, care for people who have - through no fault of their own - fallen on hard times, a legal system, etc. )
I also do think that those who profit most FROM society should contribute most TO society.

There's WAY more nuances than 'pure capitalims' and 'pure socialism' (neither of which works, IMO).

and let lab Nazis like you take over

Since I don't hold with nationalism (nor extreme socialism) I'm not sure what you're getting at, here.
omerbashich
1.4 / 5 (9) Jan 21, 2013
Oh Yes You Would!
As Obamaturds know no borders...

Did nobody teach you that rhetorical questions are not to be replied to, or else you sound stupid?

Your above-displayed stupidity is only matched by this hilarious site's "rating system" for comments, with little stars for posters. (S)he loves me, (s)he loves me not... What a sicko you have to be to make a rating system even for comments. Peer-review fever...

It's lab Nazi control-freaks thinking science is about democracy,
when it isn't. (Oh man we need some laugh, so this is where you reply with: "boo-hew, stop calling me a Nazi!")
antialias_physorg
2.5 / 5 (4) Jan 21, 2013
What a sicko you have to be to make a rating system even for comments

Well it works fine. If you want to not read all the troll-posts just set the filter.

It's lab Nazi control-freaks thinking science is about democracy,
when it isn't.

Who thinks that? You don't get to vote on science. Science is done by scientists - and hard data trumps opinion every time.

"boo-hew, stop calling me a Nazi!"

As I said: it doesn't bother me in the least that you call me that - as none of the things the Nazis stood for applies to me. So all it really does is show your staggering lack of historical knowledge.

Did nobody teach you that rhetorical questions are not to be replied to

Nope. I'll reply to stuff if I feel like it - whether you want to or not.
Whydening Gyre
1.6 / 5 (7) Jan 22, 2013
Could it be possible if - the entangling of the first two quantums obscured an entanglement with a third unmeasured quantum?
omerbashich
1.5 / 5 (8) Jan 23, 2013
What a sicko you have to be to make a rating system even for comments

Well it works fine. If you want to not read all the troll-posts just set the filter.

It's lab Nazi control-freaks thinking science is about democracy,
when it isn't.

Who thinks that? You don't get to vote on science. Science is done by scientists - and hard data trumps opinion every time.

"boo-hew, stop calling me a Nazi!"

As I said: it doesn't bother me in the least that you call me that - as none of the things the Nazis stood for applies to me. So all it really does is show your staggering lack of historical knowledge.

Did nobody teach you that rhetorical questions are not to be replied to

Nope. I'll reply to stuff if I feel like it - whether you want to or not.

Kiddo you're a lost case, seriously. How's Germany these days, any Nazi troopers marching under your window lately? Saw it on tv the other day, totally crazed up society over there. Uniforms, haircuts n all.
gwrede
1 / 5 (5) Jan 25, 2013
Not again, the time/space-travel mambo-jumbo right out of Star Trek.
Turns out I agree. But I blame those who originally started calling remote detection of entanglement Teleportation. That was a dishonest marketing cheat. They wanted as much publicity as possible. And they got it. Unfortunately.