From fish to man: Research reveals how fins became legs

Dec 10, 2012
This zebrafish embryo developed a limb that looks more like a leg than a fin, after being engineered to produce the HoxD13 protein within the cells at the tip of the developing fin. Changes in HoxD13 production likely contributed to the transition from fin to leg development, during animal evolution. Credit: Freitas et al., Developmental Cell

Vertebrates' transition to living on land, instead of only in water, represented a major event in the history of life. Now, researchers reporting in the December issue of the journal Developmental Cell provide new evidence that the development of hands and feet occurred through the gain of new DNA elements that activate particular genes.

"First, and foremost, this finding helps us to understand the power that the modification of gene expression has on shaping our bodies," says Dr. José Luis Gómez-Skarmeta of the CSIC-Universidad Pablo de Olavide-Junta de Andalucía, in Seville, Spain. "Second, many are associated with a 'misshaping' of our organs during development. In the case of genes involved in limb formation, their is associated with diseases such as synpolydactyly and hand-foot-genital syndrome."

In order to understand how fins may have evolved into limbs, researchers led by Dr. Gómez-Skarmeta and his colleague Dr. Fernando Casares at the same institute introduced extra Hoxd13, a gene known to play a role in distinguishing body parts, at the tip of a zebrafish embryo's fin. Surprisingly, this led to the generation of new and the reduction of fin tissue—changes that strikingly recapitulate key aspects of land-animal limb development. The researchers wondered whether novel Hoxd13 control elements may have increased Hoxd13 gene expression in the past to cause similar effects during limb evolution. They turned to a DNA control element that is known to regulate the activation of Hoxd13 in mouse embryonic limbs and that is absent in fish.

"We found that in the zebrafish, the mouse Hoxd13 control element was capable of driving in the distal fin rudiment. This result indicates that capable of activating this control element was also present in the last common ancestor of finned and legged animals and is proven by its remnants in zebrafish," says Dr. Casares.

Explore further: International team completes genome sequence of centipede

More information: Freitas et al.: "Hoxd13 contribution to the evolution of vertebrate appendages." DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2012.10.015

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Jeddy_Mctedder
2.5 / 5 (13) Dec 10, 2012
Lookup videos of the spotted handfish. Unreal. Evolutionary living fossil that walks on the seafloor in shallow waters.
obama_socks
1.5 / 5 (26) Dec 10, 2012
And these first limbed animals crawled out of the oceans onto the African continent, notably South Africa and nowhere else in the world, right? From them evolved the ape-man on one branch, which then evolved into...US? Perhaps a little more Hoxd13 applied to our distant cousins, might have resulted in cats becoming pianists and violinists and dogs flamenco dancers.

Oh, the lost opportunities for Muffin and Fido...

;)
obama_socks
1.5 / 5 (15) Dec 10, 2012
More relevant research on this topic
From 2010:
http://phys.org/n...tml#nRlv

From 2011:
http://phys.org/n...mbs.html
Anda
3.6 / 5 (17) Dec 10, 2012
Obama_socks! :

"And these first limbed animals crawled out of the oceans onto the African continent, notably South Africa and nowhere else in the world, right? From them evolved the ape-man on one branch, which then evolved into...US?"

Incredible! The dumbest comment, ever!
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.4 / 5 (36) Dec 10, 2012
And these first limbed animals crawled out of the oceans onto the African continent, notably South Africa and nowhere else in the world, right? From them evolved the ape-man on one branch, which then evolved into...US?
So... Pussytard the supposedly well-educated NASA engineer thinks that we evolved from fish with legs and fails to consider all the intervening species, not to mention all those lizards and dinosaurs and mammals.

And so these fish with legs HAD to have walked out onto south african shores as that is where mankind originated? Do you really think this way pussytard? Are you really this stupid?? My god-
obama_socks
2 / 5 (23) Dec 10, 2012
I never said that I work for NASA, you idjit...and you and your sock puppet Anda are obviously stupid since you didn't see the "wink and smile" that I put in that post to indicate it was a joke.
Blotto, you're incredibly stupid....go take your meds!!
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.6 / 5 (38) Dec 10, 2012
I never said that I work for NASA, you idjit...
Blotto, you're incredibly stupid....go take your meds!!
Yes you did, and when I posted your statement you claimed you were actually an engineering consultant to NASA.

Which would obviously be the same thing, except that both are obviously LIES. You are no engineer. Imbeciles rarely become engineers except perhaps bouffant engineers.
and you and your sock puppet Anda are obviously stupid since you didn't see the "wink and smile" that I put in that post to indicate it was a joke.
Sorry theres no joke here. You apparently dont understand evolution any more than you understand that zero growth does not mean zero births, or that you cannot cast metal boomerangs in wax molds. Remember how you were such a ufo nut as pirouette? Same gushing adoration for ETs.
Estevan57
2.6 / 5 (47) Dec 10, 2012
Otto - you're ranting again go take yer meds.
Pirouette isn't here - you only think he is.
Evolve a little more, quisling.
obama_socks
1.6 / 5 (14) Dec 10, 2012
I never said that I work for NASA, you idjit...
Blotto, you're incredibly stupid....go take your meds!!

Yes you did, and when I posted your statement you claimed you were actually an engineering consultant to NASA.


Nope, I NEVER said that I work FOR NASA. I am not employed BY NASA, and it's not YOUR business anyway.

Which would obviously be the same thing, except that both are obviously LIES. You are no engineer. Imbeciles rarely become engineers except perhaps bouffant engineers.
and you and your sock puppet Anda are obviously stupid since you didn't see the "wink and smile" that I put in that post to indicate it was a joke.
Sorry theres no joke here. You apparently dont understand evolution any more than you understand that zero growth does not mean zero births, or that you cannot cast metal boomerangs in wax molds. Remember how you were such a ufo nut as pirouette? Same gushing adoration for ETs.
-Blotto

LOL..you are still hoping to find them.
obama_socks
2 / 5 (21) Dec 10, 2012
Yes, my comment was a joke, as evidenced by the emoticon which you obviously missed in your insane haste to label me with your hated Pussycateyes and all the rest who are in your list of enemies.

Too bad...you lose as usual and give evidence of your mental illness. Everyone knows who you are now and what you are all about.

Metal boomerangs? You really ARE nuts!!
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (17) Dec 10, 2012
Ohhhh I see. Blotto doesn't believe in UFOs, therefore they can't possibly exist...because he says so.
Blotto...Show us the link where your friend pirouette was a UFO nut.
Meyer
4 / 5 (4) Dec 10, 2012
I never said that I work for NASA, you idjit...

Yes you did, and when I posted your statement you claimed you were actually an engineering consultant to NASA.

Having known many consultants, I can attest that he probably did no "work" for NASA.
FrankHerbert
1.9 / 5 (15) Dec 10, 2012
Metal boomerangs? You really ARE nuts!!


Haha, you're still mad at us pointing out how dumb you made yourself look? That was what, over a year ago?

Let me search google...
http://phys.org/n...lem.html

Here is poop_sock's idiocy in all its glory. He is Pirouette in this topic, a handle that was banned for incomprehensible retardation a while back. Watch him flail helplessly as more intelligent people try to reason with then ridicule him.

This topic is also a good example of Noumenon's mass puppeteering. One of my comments has 119 ratings! Quite a lot of freetime our favorite philosopher must have.
TheOtherGhost ofOtto
3.3 / 5 (31) Dec 10, 2012
And Frank, like Otto, is obsessed to the point of searching for other people on Google.

Really Otto, Frank, lite, etc? Searching for people on Google? Really? What a loser. What a loser. What a loser.

You suck the life out of the entire site with your constant warfare with others. Downvoting and gangrating and all the other shit. Saying EVERYONE you don't like is Pirouette or a clone or this or that.

You must be a damned lonely man to spend the time this way.

Who the fuck cares if someone is Pirouette or not except you?
You are a petty-ass little man-bitch with no self worth stuck in the role of official ass-troll on the comments section of a website.

For a person that gangrate himself as much as you do you sure complain a lot.

Have a nice day.
FrankHerbert
1.3 / 5 (16) Dec 10, 2012
Someone who isn't a pussytard would know you can use google to search within domains, like phys.org as phys.org has no search function itself.

You suck the life out of the entire site with your constant warfare with others. Downvoting and gangrating and all the other shit. Saying EVERYONE you don't like is Pirouette or a clone or this or that.

Who the fuck cares if someone is Pirouette or not except you?


Hi Noumenon. How's that hypocrisy working for? In case that is too vague, change "Pirouette" in the above quotes to "FrankHerbert", "TheGhostOfOtto", or "lite". Are you too pussyscared to post on Noumenon? Afraid you might get a few ones?

BTW, that volley I sent you the other day was just a test. It wasn't meant to be noticable, which means the test was much more successful than expected, sort of like Tsar Bomba. You should be shitting your pants right now. As Hitchcock said, there is no fear in the bang, only in the anticipation of the bang. :)
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (13) Dec 11, 2012
I never said that I work for NASA, you idjit...

Yes you did, and when I posted your statement you claimed you were actually an engineering consultant to NASA.

Having known many consultants, I can attest that he probably did no "work" for NASA.
-Meyer

And you know this...how? Do you somehow KNOW ME? Have you ever met me anywhere? Do you know the consulting firm that I work for? Of course you don't.

You're obviously just pulling turds out of your ass to impress the Blotto moron.
FrankHerbert
1.7 / 5 (17) Dec 11, 2012
You're obviously just pulling turds out of your ass

You should try it sometime... cause ya know... you're full of shit.
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (18) Dec 11, 2012
Someone who isn't a pussytard would know you can use google to search within domains, like phys.org as phys.org has no search function itself.



Well well well...looks like old FrankHerbert has done it again...twice now. Betrayed himself as a sock puppet of Theghostofotto1923 by saying the word "pussytard" which FH shouldn't even know about.

Let's seeeee…FrankHerbert's last post was on January 24, 2012 and only came back to physorg sometime in or just before November 2012 after a supposedly deadly illness, while Pussycateyes registered and started posting on February 13, 2012 and her last post was on July 26, 2012.
And yet, FrankHerbert seems to KNOW all about this "pussytard" even though Pussycateyes started posting almost a month AFTER FH left, and Pussycateyes left BEFORE FunkHerbert returned to physorg. So, the sock puppet FrankHerbutt wasn't posting in all the time that Pussycateyes was here. And yet, FH says "pussytard" almost as much as Theghostofotto1923 does.
FrankHerbert
1.3 / 5 (16) Dec 11, 2012
See pussytard? Don't you feel better now?
obama_socks
1.8 / 5 (19) Dec 11, 2012
Now why is that?
Obviously, FrankHerbert IS Theghostofotto1923 aka lite, et al. and that's the reason WHY FrankHerbert and Theghostofotto1923 talk the same way...because 'they' are 'one' person only.

Mystery solved...LOL
obama_socks
2.1 / 5 (19) Dec 11, 2012
Pussycateyes left physorg on July 26th and only Theghostofotto1923 called her 'pussytard'.
FrankHerbert has been outed.
Neinsense99
1.9 / 5 (9) Dec 11, 2012
There should be a shortcut button for rating the entire petty and personal exchange above as a big round zero (0). It almost makes one long for the usual creationist trolls and their usual mockers. Almost.
obama_socks
1.6 / 5 (19) Dec 11, 2012
There should be a shortcut button for rating the entire petty and personal exchange above as a big round zero (0). It almost makes one long for the usual creationist trolls and their usual mockers. Almost.


I didn't start this nonsense. Look at the person(s) who troll each thread with false accusations and name-calling. Ask the moderators to remove THEM and we can all have some peace.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.3 / 5 (31) Dec 11, 2012
I never said that I work for NASA, you idjit...

Yes you did, and when I posted your statement you claimed you were actually an engineering consultant to NASA.

Having known many consultants, I can attest that he probably did no "work" for NASA.
Yeah I have also, as well as many engineers. I cant believe someone is STUPID enough to try to pretend to be one, as she did a nurse, and a farmer, and a russian. What an imbecile.
Ask the moderators to remove THEM and we can all have some peace.
MANY people here take issue with your incessant lying bullshit. As long as you continue to post, someone will be showing you how ignorant you are.

You do understand this dont you?
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.3 / 5 (33) Dec 11, 2012
And you know this...how? Do you somehow KNOW ME? Have you ever met me anywhere? Do you know the consulting firm that I work for? Of course you don't.
ALL someone has to do to know you are a FRAUD pussytard, is to read your posts.

Like how you concluded for instance, that the UFO in the other thread was an RC hoax, and yet pointed out that its asymmetry would have made it unstable. So how was an unstable RC supposed to fly?

No engineer, or reasonably intelligent person for that matter, would MAKE such a mistake.

No reasonably intelligent person would even TRY to pretend to be a NASA engineer, or a nurse, or a russian, or even a farmer as you have done, because they would be smart enough to KNOW how difficult this would be...ESPECIALLY on a site frequented by engineers, and nurses, and farmers.

This is how shockingly FAULTY you are.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.4 / 5 (32) Dec 11, 2012
Hey lying scummy troll
Otto - you're ranting again go take yer meds.
Pirouette isn't here - you only think he is.
Evolve a little more, quisling.
-Whatsamatter esai? You sound a little frustrated-
obama_socks
1.8 / 5 (19) Dec 11, 2012
Blotto is a crazy psychotic moron who is evidently dissatisfied with its life, thus making insane accusations ABOUT whomever he can corner in these threads. This strange behavior makes Theghostofotto1923 create many many sock puppets, each with one of his many personalities. Pussycateyes diagnosed Blotto as having "Dissociative Identity Disorder" and Blotto displays his mental illness in each thread he enters.
Blotto also morphs into his sock puppets so that it appears that he has "friends" and "allies" on physorg. But they are all Theghostofotto1923.
WHAT A SAD SACK...THAT BLOTTO!!

BLOTTO CONTINUES TO INSIST THAT I'M A NURSE, FARMER, A RUSSIAN AND WHATEVER ELSE POPS INTO ITS MIND. ALL BECAUSE BLOTTO IS A LONELY IDIOT WHO MOST LIKELY STILL LIVES IN HIS MOM'S BASEMENT IN SPITE OF BEING AN OLD MAN AND EVIDENTLY HAS NEVER HAD SEX WITH A WOMAN.
WHAT A SAD EXISTENCE.
obama_socks
1.8 / 5 (19) Dec 11, 2012
ALL someone has to do to know you are a FRAUD pussytard, is to read your posts.

Like how you concluded for instance, that the UFO in the other thread was an RC hoax, and yet pointed out that its asymmetry would have made it unstable. So how was an unstable RC supposed to fly?

No engineer, or reasonably intelligent person for that matter, would MAKE such a mistake.
-Crazy Blotto

That's because it was a Radio-Controlled toy, poorly made and aerodynamically unsound. It was not an E.T. UFO. since real UFOs do NOT get entangled in power lines. You're too stupid to understand these concepts, Blotto, so don't even try.

obama_socks
1.8 / 5 (19) Dec 11, 2012
Sad how easy it is for Theghostofotto1923 to hijack physorg science threads with Blotto's nonsense accusations to gain attention for Blotto's lonely self.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.5 / 5 (33) Dec 11, 2012
That's because it was a Radio-Controlled toy
There were no wings. There was no propeller, no jet engines. And it was too lopsided to fly. Find a real engineer and ask him what they think.
poorly made and aerodynamically unsound.
Right too poorly configured to fly AT ALL.
It was not an E.T. UFO. since real UFOs do NOT get entangled in power lines.
It was obviously not entangled in power lines. And it was obviously not even real - a computer generated image. Do a little research to find this out you moron. Its been debunked. By people who actually know what they are doing, and not pretending to be what they are not.
You're too stupid to understand these concepts, Blotto, so don't even try.
Obviously, Im not. I KNOW we didnt evolve directly from fish with legs in south africa.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.5 / 5 (33) Dec 11, 2012
I also KNOW that ANY NASA engineer, contract or direct, would understand that it is not possible to add equipment to satellites such as the webb at this stage of their assembly. No NASA engineer would even suggest this. You lying freeking TROLL.
http://phys.org/n...ory.html
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (17) Dec 11, 2012
It was not a computer generated image either. It had appendages and it looked more like it was hanging from a tether, but it also had a motor which is why it was IN THE AIR...stupid idiot.
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (17) Dec 11, 2012
The James Webb space telescope is still under construction and will not be launched until 2018...that's FOUR YEARS into the future, you stupid idiot. There is plenty of time to add to it.
And why are you talking about that in THIS THREAD?
Oh, that's right...you enjoy being OFF TOPIC TO GET ATTENTION.
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (13) Dec 11, 2012
I see that Theghostofotto1923's sock puppet ... depth ...has rated Blotto a 5 ...apparently for telling lies.
Muahahahahhahahahhah...the lying Ghostofotto gets a FIVE
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (13) Dec 11, 2012
That's because it was a Radio-Controlled toy
There were no wings. There was no propeller, no jet engines. And it was too lopsided to fly. Find a real engineer and ask him what they think.
poorly made and aerodynamically unsound.
Right too poorly configured to fly AT ALL.
It was not an E.T. UFO. since real UFOs do NOT get entangled in power lines.
It was obviously not entangled in power lines. And it was obviously not even real - a computer generated image. Do a little research to find this out you moron. Its been debunked. By people who actually know what they are doing, and not pretending to be what they are not.
You're too stupid to understand these concepts, Blotto, so don't even try.
Obviously, Im not. I KNOW we didnt evolve directly from fish with legs in south africa.
-stupid Blotto

Nobody ever said humans evolved directly from fish, you asshole.
Oh wait...maybe YOUR family did...directly evolved from moron assholes from sewers.
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (17) Dec 11, 2012
Yes...one has only to read my first comment on page 1 to see that Theghostofotto1923 aka FrankHerbutt is lying in an attempt to fraudulently build himself up as a crusader for truth. Here is my actual comment:

quote obama_socks Dec 10, 2012 Rank: 1.4 / 5 (12)
And these first limbed animals crawled out of the oceans onto the African continent, notably South Africa and nowhere else in the world, right? From them evolved the ape-man on one branch, which then evolved into...US? Perhaps a little more Hoxd13 applied to our distant cousins, might have resulted in cats becoming pianists and violinists and dogs flamenco dancers. Oh, the lost opportunities for Muffin and Fido...
;)
-------------
Notice that I said: "From them evolved the ape-man on one branch, which then evolved into...US?"
Again, Theghostofotto1923/Frankherbert is caught in another lie to try and make himself look good.
Why does he persist in doing this in all threads? He suffers from Dissociative Identity Disorder & lunacy
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.3 / 5 (27) Dec 12, 2012
The James Webb space telescope is still under construction and will not be launched until 2018...that's FOUR YEARS into the future, you stupid idiot. There is plenty of time to add to it.
You always insist on exposing yourself. Let me repeat: ANY NASA engineer or janitor would know that the design psrameters are set and it is not possible to change weight or energy use at this time, for a project such as the Webb.

No you don't understand this which is how we know you're not what you say you are.
And why are you talking about that in THIS THREAD?
Oh, that's right...you enjoy being OFF TOPIC TO GET ATTENTION.
Your bullshit is off-topic in any thread. It is useful I think to expose it wherever possible. I and others will certainly continue to do so. You have some problem with that?
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.4 / 5 (26) Dec 12, 2012
So pussytard
notably South Africa and nowhere else in the world, right? From them evolved the ape-man on one branch...
-If there were millions and millions of years and countless species in between walking fish and us, why would you assume they had to have emerged in south Africa, unless you believe we evolved directly from them as you SAID? Why would you have said that, ms NASA engineer (consultant)?
obama_socks
2 / 5 (16) Dec 12, 2012
I don't work for NASA in spite of your constant claim that I do, you freaking liar.
And why would YOU assume that limbed fish did NOT emerge in Africa? Where is your proof for your assertions?

Evidently, you STILL lack comprehension of the written word, and now you are changing your tune BECAUSE I copied and pasted my original post...you twisted idiot.

Muahahahahahah
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (17) Dec 12, 2012
Blotto always exposes itself as a liar who thinks that JWST is done and ready to launch, even though there are FOUR MORE YEARS before actual launch..what a liar and loser. laughable
obama_socks
2 / 5 (16) Dec 12, 2012
The James Webb space telescope is still under construction and will not be launched until 2018...that's FOUR YEARS into the future, you stupid idiot. There is plenty of time to add to it.
You always insist on exposing yourself. Let me repeat: ANY NASA engineer or janitor would know that the design psrameters are set and it is not possible to change weight or energy use at this time, for a project such as the Webb.

No you don't understand this which is how we know you're not what you say you are.
And why are you talking about that in THIS THREAD?
Oh, that's right...you enjoy being OFF TOPIC TO GET ATTENTION.
Your bullshit is off-topic in any thread. It is useful I think to expose it wherever possible. I and others will certainly continue to do so. You have some problem with that?


You continue in every thread to show your ignorance. Not surprising that you believe that these researchers cannot get their project included on the James Webb ST.
obama_socks
1.9 / 5 (17) Dec 12, 2012
Blotto pretends to know everything about the JamesWebbSpaceTelescope and what it can or can't integrate into its module...all without researching the project. This is to impress others with his "genius", but never offers any PROOF of his assertions.

I have been studying the JWST project since its inception and will continue to do so.

Any time that Theghostofotto1923 or its sock puppets can't come up with a legitimate and proper answer to a science comment that it criticized, Blotto runs away by either going to yet another thread, or morphing into one of its sock puppets, or blustering its way out by ad hominem attacks and innuendo and lies.

We are all aware of Theghostofotto1923's modus operandi to eliminate any and all opposition to its pretense of "all-knowing-genius" status. So I laugh at your efforts, Blotto, and those of your sock puppets which are all YOU.

Muahahahahahahah
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.5 / 5 (32) Dec 12, 2012
I don't work for NASA in spite of your constant claim that I do, you freaking liar.
Among the many times you said you did ('...must get back to the station'), did you forget this?
Anyway, I took a few days off from NASA...'
-I already reposted it once. Must I do so yet again?

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