Mathematics and the ocean: Movement, mixing and climate modeling

Oct 17, 2012

Studying the dynamics of the ocean system can greatly improve our understanding of key processes of ocean circulations, which have implications for future climate. Can applying mathematics to the research help? Dr. Emily Shuckburgh of the British Antarctic Survey, speaking at the 2012 SIAM Annual Meeting, thinks the answer is an emphatic "yes."

Dr. Shuckburgh described from dynamical systems used by her group, along with numerical modeling and , to analyze circulation in the Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean is unique in that it connects 3 major —the Pacific, the Atlantic and the Indian oceans—with a powerful current that circulates all the way around Antarctica. This circumpolar current travels from the North Atlantic, sinking down to the bottom of the ocean and coming up to the surface around Antarctica, thus connecting the deep ocean with the atmosphere above. When water from the comes up to the surface, it can exchange heat and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, thus making it highly significant for .

Shuckburgh and her team study circulation at Drake Passage, which separates South America from the , at the point where water in the Southern Ocean passes from the Pacific to the Atlantic oceans. Because of the differing properties of water from different regions— from the Northern Atlantic and the extremely cold waters of Antarctic ice—this region is perfectly suited to study how water with different properties mixes together during circulation. Moreover, as water moves through Drake Passage, flowing over rock-bottom mountainous topography and then churning upward, it creates a great deal of mixing. Mixing is a key determinant in the uptake of heat and carbon by oceans.

This video is not supported by your browser at this time.
Watch a brief video clip of Dr. Shuckburgh discussing this work

Shuckburgh's team quantifies the amount of mixing by taking measurements of ocean properties and currents from the surface of the water down to the bottom of the ocean. In addition, dyes and tracers are tracked as they flow through Drake Passage in order to observe how mixing occurs. Diffusion of the tracer is a good qualitative indicator of transport and mixing properties, and can give an indication of how absorbed heat may be redistributed in the water.

Ocean mixing is currently not well simulated by climate models, even though it plays a major role in ocean heat uptake. Oceans are capable of absorbing, storing and slowly releasing large quantities of heat. As greenhouse gases trap heat from the sun, oceans absorb more heat, leading to increased sea surface temperatures, rising sea levels, and consequently, changing climate patterns around the world. In addition, oceans can diffuse the effects of changes in temperature over great distances due to mixing and movement, and potential alteration of ocean currents, which can result in a greater ability to absorb heat. Studying processes such as ocean mixing is thus essential to understanding the oceans' influence on future climate.

Explore further: Math modeling handbook now available

More information: You can view here entire presentation here: live.blueskybroadcast.com/bsb/client/CL_DEFAULT.asp?Client=975312&PCAT=4072&CAT=4708

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Massive Southern Ocean current discovered

Apr 26, 2010

(PhysOrg.com) -- A deep ocean current with a volume equivalent to 40 Amazon Rivers has been discovered by Japanese and Australian scientists near the Kerguelen plateau, in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern ...

A climate window in the Southern Ocean

Feb 28, 2012

The world’s oceans act as a massive conveyor, circulating heat, water and carbon around the planet. This global system plays a key role in climate change, storing and releasing heat throughout the world. ...

Salty oceans provide early warning for climate change

Jun 08, 2007

Monitoring the saltiness of the ocean water could provide an early indicator of climate change. Significant increases or decreases in salt in key areas could forewarn of climate change in 10 to 20 years time. Presenting their ...

Recommended for you

Not just the poor live hand-to-mouth

4 hours ago

When the economy hits the skids, government stimulus checks to the poor sometimes follow. Stimulus programs—such as those in 2001, 2008 and 2009—are designed to boost the economy quickly by getting cash ...

Math modeling handbook now available

7 hours ago

Math comes in handy for answering questions about a variety of topics, from calculating the cost-effectiveness of fuel sources and determining the best regions to build high-speed rail to predicting the spread ...

Archaeologists, tribe clash over Native remains

7 hours ago

Archaeologists and Native Americans are clashing over Indian remains and artifacts that were excavated during a construction project in the San Francisco Bay Area, but then reburied at an undisclosed location.

Male-biased tweeting

9 hours ago

Today women take an active part in public life. Without a doubt, they also converse with other women. In fact, they even talk to each other about other things besides men. As banal as it sounds, this is far ...

Developing nations ride a motorcycle boom

11 hours ago

Asia's rapidly developing economies should prepare for a full-throttle increase in motorcycle numbers as average incomes increase, a new study from The Australian National University has found.

User comments : 3

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

cantdrive85
1 / 5 (4) Oct 17, 2012
"Ocean mixing is currently not well simulated by climate models, even though it plays a major role in ocean heat uptake."

The problem with the models is they don't quantify all of the potential energy in the system. Not until they account for the electrical nature of the currents can a proper model be created.

thermodynamics
5 / 5 (1) Oct 17, 2012
cantdrive: You said: "Not until they account for the electrical nature of the currents can a proper model be created."

Can you, please, describe the nature of the electrical currents in the ocean? Being educated in the areas of physics and chemistry I must have slept through that part of the lectures and would like to hear your explanation.

Do the currents flow between electric eels?
cantdrive85
1 / 5 (3) Oct 17, 2012
Here is a paper that discusses electric currents in water. The author points out the the observations don't agree with the current understanding that the water flowing is inducing the currents. In my opinion, the reverse path needs to be examined, whereas the electric currents that are known to flow around the Earth are the source of energy that cause the water or air to flow, being dragged along by the electric currents.

http://www.mpimet...inal.pdf

More news stories

Not just the poor live hand-to-mouth

When the economy hits the skids, government stimulus checks to the poor sometimes follow. Stimulus programs—such as those in 2001, 2008 and 2009—are designed to boost the economy quickly by getting cash ...

Male-biased tweeting

Today women take an active part in public life. Without a doubt, they also converse with other women. In fact, they even talk to each other about other things besides men. As banal as it sounds, this is far ...

Archaeologists, tribe clash over Native remains

Archaeologists and Native Americans are clashing over Indian remains and artifacts that were excavated during a construction project in the San Francisco Bay Area, but then reburied at an undisclosed location.

Math modeling handbook now available

Math comes in handy for answering questions about a variety of topics, from calculating the cost-effectiveness of fuel sources and determining the best regions to build high-speed rail to predicting the spread ...