Cancer research yields unexpected new way to produce nylon

Sep 23, 2012

In their quest for a cancer cure, researchers at the Duke Cancer Institute made a serendipitous discovery—a molecule necessary for cheaper and greener ways to produce nylon.

The finding, described in the Sept. 23, 2012, issue of the journal Nature , arose from an intriguing notion that some of the genetic and in might be harnessed for beneficial uses.

"In our lab, we study genetic changes that cause healthy tissues to go bad and grow into tumors. The goal of this research is to understand how the tumors develop in order to design better treatments," said Zachary J. Reitman, Ph.D., an associate in research at Duke and lead author of the study. "As it turns out, a bit of information we learned in that process paves the way for a better method to produce nylon."

Nylon is a ubiquitous material, used in carpeting, upholstery, auto parts, apparel and other products. A key component for its production is adipic acid, which is one of the most widely used chemicals in the world. Currently, adipic acid is produced from fossil fuel, and the pollution released from the refinement process is a leading contributor to global warming.

Reitman said he and colleagues delved into the adipic acid problem based on similarities between techniques and biochemical engineering. Both fields rely on enzymes, which are molecules that convert one small chemical to another. Enzymes play a major role in both healthy tissues and in tumors, but they are also used to convert organic matter into such as adipic acid.

One of the most promising approaches being studied today for environmentally friendly adipic acid production uses a series of enzymes as an to convert cheap sugars into adipic acid. However, one in the series, called a 2-hydroxyadipate , has never been produced, leaving a missing link in the assembly line.

This is where the research comes in. In 2008 and 2009, Duke researchers, including Hai Yan, M.D., PhD., identified a genetic mutation in glioblastomas and other brain tumors that alters the function of an enzyme known as an isocitrate dehydrogenase.

Reitman and colleagues had a hunch that the genetic mutation seen in cancer might trigger a similar functional change to a closely related enzyme found in yeast and bacteria (homoisocitrate dehydrogenase), which would create the elusive 2-hydroxyadipate dehydrogenase necessary for "green" adipic acid production.

They were right. The functional mutation observed in cancer could be constructively applied to other closely related enzymes, creating a beneficial outcome – in this case the missing link that could enable adipic acid production from cheap sugars. The next step will be to scale up the overall adipic acid production process, which remains a considerable undertaking.

"It's exciting that sequencing cancer genomes can help us to discover new enzyme activities," Reitman said. "Even that occur in only a few patients could reveal useful new enzyme functions that were not obvious before."

Yan, a professor in the Department of Pathology and senior author of the study, said the research demonstrates how an investment in medical research can be applied broadly to solve other significant issues of the day.

"This is the result of a cancer researcher thinking outside the box to produce a new enzyme and create a precursor for nylon production," Yan said. "Not only is this discovery exciting, it reaffirms the commitment we should be making to science and to encouraging young people to pursue science."

Explore further: Classical enzymatic theory revised by including water motions

More information: Paper: DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.1065

Related Stories

Altered cell metabolism has role in brain tumor development

Jan 31, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- Scientists at Duke Cancer Institute have discovered that genetic mutations found in brain tumors can alter tumor metabolism. This work could help lead to new designs for anti-cancer drugs based on the unique ...

Elusive gene mutations found for malignant brain tumor

Aug 04, 2011

A discovery by scientists at Duke University Medical Center and Johns Hopkins University could increase the chances for an effective combination of drug therapy to treat the second most common type of brain tumor.

Wine With a Double Shot of Vitamin C?

Mar 21, 2006

Genetically designed grapes with elevated levels of vitamin C may be more than wishful thinking, according to researchers at the University of California, Davis, and the University of Adelaide, Australia, who ...

Recommended for you

Molecules that came in handy for first life on Earth

Nov 24, 2014

For the first time, chemists have successfully produced amino acid-like molecules that all have the same 'handedness', from simple building blocks and in a single test tube. Could this be how life started. ...

Jumping hurdles in the RNA world

Nov 21, 2014

Astrobiologists have shown that the formation of RNA from prebiotic reactions may not be as problematic as scientists once thought.

User comments : 3

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

zz6549
5 / 5 (2) Sep 23, 2012
Mass media interpretation: Nylon causes cancer!

But seriously... this is an impressive finding. If it can be scaled and applied to production, nylon costs will decrease, potentially increasing the number of applications for it.
Telekinetic
1 / 5 (7) Sep 23, 2012
When American G.I.'s wanted to bed a French girl, all it took was a pair of nylon stockings. Lucky for him he only got a dose of the clap, which could have been worse according to this article- unless I misread something.
vega12
not rated yet Sep 26, 2012
When American G.I.'s wanted to bed a French girl, all it took was a pair of nylon stockings. Lucky for him he only got a dose of the clap, which could have been worse according to this article- unless I misread something.

You might as well have just posted "tldr".

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.