The wasp that never cries wolf

August 20, 2012
European paper wasps (Polistes dominula) advertise the size of their poison glands to potential predators. Credit: Francisco J. Zamora-Camacho

European paper wasps (Polistes dominula) advertise the size of their poison glands to potential predators, finds a new study published in BioMed Central's open access journal Frontiers in Zoology. The brighter the colour, the larger the poison gland.

Aposematism is used by many different animals to warn potential predators that they are poisonous. Usually this takes the form of distinctive colouration or patterns which predators quickly learn to avoid. have conspicuous yellow and black patterns covering their bodies and researchers from University of Granada and the University of Almería found that when they compared the size of a wasp's poison gland to the brightness of its colour there was a direct relationship.

Dr Gregorio Moreno-Rueda, who led this study explained, "It might be thought that bigger have bigger poison glands, and this is indeed true, but even when the data was adjusted to take in to account the size of the insect, a positive correlation between gland size and brightness remained."

But producing both the poison and the distinctive colouration is costly to the wasp. To get around this problem some species, such as hoverflies, have learnt to mimic poisonous ones. But other animals use colouration as a truthful (Zahavian) signal. In this case the wasp would be signalling that it is so strong and healthy that it can waste energy producing bright colour; and a strong and healthy wasp will contain a lot of poison.

Dr Moreno-Rueda continued, "A second possibility is that the pigment is also an antioxidant that helps protect the insect from its own poison or from the by-products of poison production. Consequently an insect which has a lot of poison will also have a lot of colour."

Either way need to beware – a bright wasp will leave a nasty taste in the mouth.

Explore further: Treadmill tests for poison frogs prove toxic species are more physically fit

Related Stories

Study shows insect mimic abilities related to size

March 22, 2012

(PhysOrg.com) -- A group of Canadian researchers who found themselves wondering why some plants or animals are good mimics while others are not, has undertaken a study on the matter and believe they have found the answer. ...

Recommended for you

Male seahorse and human pregnancies remarkably alike

September 1, 2015

Their pregnancies are carried by the males but, when it comes to breeding, seahorses have more in common with humans than previously thought, new research from the University of Sydney reveals.

Parasitized bees are self-medicating in the wild, study finds

September 1, 2015

Bumblebees infected with a common intestinal parasite are drawn to flowers whose nectar and pollen have a medicinal effect, a Dartmouth-led study shows. The findings suggest that plant chemistry could help combat the decline ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.