Small but powerful: Fermilab develops magnets for the future High Luminosity LHC

August 29, 2012 by Anaïs Schaeffer
Members of the CERN-Fermilab team wind the magnet coil. From left to right: M. Whitson, A. Zlobin, B. Auchmann, M. Karppinen, F. Nobrega and J. Alvarez. A. Zlobin (Fermilab) and M. Karppinen (CERN) are the technical heads of the 11 T Collaboration.

Magnet size is crucial to an accelerator as it determines the final circumference and power. This spring, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla magnet that is shorter than the 8 Tesla magnets currently installed in the LHC. These new magnets will be a valuable asset to the HL-LHC, the next step of the LHC machine.

The HL-LHC (High LHC) represents the future of CERN's flagship accelerator. From around 2020, this major upgrade will allow a substantial increase in the rate of collisions compared to today. The project poses various technical challenges, some of which appear to be close to being resolved.

The success of the HL-LHC hinges on two essential conditions: the installation of more powerful magnets to guide the beams, and the addition of extra collimators to mitigate the increase in radiation. However, one of the key questions is how to insert additional collimators in a 27 km ring already full to bursting. The answer is to replace the current magnets by shorter but more powerful magnets, which is what Fermilab's engineers have been working on in collaboration with CERN. "The idea originated in 2010 from a proposal made by the then head of CERN's Magnets, and Cryostats group, Lucio Rossi," explains Giorgio Apollinari, head of Fermilab's Technical Division. "During a discussion he suggested replacing a few of the LHC's 8 Tesla dipole magnets with shorter 11 Tesla magnets. His idea aligned well with the goals of Fermilab's R&D programme for projects including the muon collider, so we decided to collaborate."

An 11 T magnet ready for cryogenic testing.

It was not long before the decision started to pay off. In spring 2012, only 20 months after the research had begun, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla two-metre-long prototype magnet. Once several more development phases have been completed, an 11-metre-long magnet should see the light of day. Nothing short of a revolution when you think that the existing magnets are 14 metres long. "We achieved this using niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) instead of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti), which was the material used in the manufacture of the superconducting cables of the LHC magnets in the 1990s," adds Giorgio Apollinari.

Looking at what the - collaboration has achieved in less than two years, we think it's safe to assume that 11 magnets are not far off…

Explore further: Fermilab and Berkeley Lab Collaborate with Meyer Tool on Key Component for European Particle Accelerator

Related Stories

LHC to Restart in 2009

December 8, 2008

CERN today confirmed that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will restart in 2009. This news forms part of an updated report, published last week, on the status of the LHC following a malfunction on 19 September.

LHC now colder than deep space

October 20, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is once again colder than deep space as it is prepared for experiments to resume in late November.

CERN has 2020 vision for LHC upgrade

November 16, 2011

CERN today kicked off the High Luminosity LHC study with a workshop bringing together scientists and engineers from some 14 European institutions, supported through the European Commission’s seventh Framework programme ...

Recommended for you

Quantum matter stuck in unrest

July 31, 2015

Using ultracold atoms trapped in light crystals, scientists from the MPQ, LMU, and the Weizmann Institute observe a novel state of matter that never thermalizes.

New blow for 'supersymmetry' physics theory

July 27, 2015

In a new blow for the futuristic "supersymmetry" theory of the universe's basic anatomy, experts reported fresh evidence Monday of subatomic activity consistent with the mainstream Standard Model of particle physics.

Rogue wave theory to save ships

July 29, 2015

Physicists have found an explanation for rogue waves in the ocean and hope their theory will lead to devices to warn ships and save lives.

Researchers build bacteria's photosynthetic engine

July 29, 2015

Nearly all life on Earth depends on photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. Oxygen-producing plants and cyanobacteria perfected this process 2.7 billion years ago. But the first photosynthetic ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.