Small but powerful: Fermilab develops magnets for the future High Luminosity LHC

Aug 29, 2012 by Anaïs Schaeffer
Members of the CERN-Fermilab team wind the magnet coil. From left to right: M. Whitson, A. Zlobin, B. Auchmann, M. Karppinen, F. Nobrega and J. Alvarez. A. Zlobin (Fermilab) and M. Karppinen (CERN) are the technical heads of the 11 T Collaboration.

Magnet size is crucial to an accelerator as it determines the final circumference and power. This spring, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla magnet that is shorter than the 8 Tesla magnets currently installed in the LHC. These new magnets will be a valuable asset to the HL-LHC, the next step of the LHC machine.

The HL-LHC (High LHC) represents the future of CERN's flagship accelerator. From around 2020, this major upgrade will allow a substantial increase in the rate of collisions compared to today. The project poses various technical challenges, some of which appear to be close to being resolved.

The success of the HL-LHC hinges on two essential conditions: the installation of more powerful magnets to guide the beams, and the addition of extra collimators to mitigate the increase in radiation. However, one of the key questions is how to insert additional collimators in a 27 km ring already full to bursting. The answer is to replace the current magnets by shorter but more powerful magnets, which is what Fermilab's engineers have been working on in collaboration with CERN. "The idea originated in 2010 from a proposal made by the then head of CERN's Magnets, and Cryostats group, Lucio Rossi," explains Giorgio Apollinari, head of Fermilab's Technical Division. "During a discussion he suggested replacing a few of the LHC's 8 Tesla dipole magnets with shorter 11 Tesla magnets. His idea aligned well with the goals of Fermilab's R&D programme for projects including the muon collider, so we decided to collaborate."

An 11 T magnet ready for cryogenic testing.

It was not long before the decision started to pay off. In spring 2012, only 20 months after the research had begun, Fermilab unveiled a 10.4 Tesla two-metre-long prototype magnet. Once several more development phases have been completed, an 11-metre-long magnet should see the light of day. Nothing short of a revolution when you think that the existing magnets are 14 metres long. "We achieved this using niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) instead of niobium-titanium (Nb-Ti), which was the material used in the manufacture of the superconducting cables of the LHC magnets in the 1990s," adds Giorgio Apollinari.

Looking at what the - collaboration has achieved in less than two years, we think it's safe to assume that 11 magnets are not far off…

Explore further: New insights found in black hole collisions

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

CERN has 2020 vision for LHC upgrade

Nov 16, 2011

CERN today kicked off the High Luminosity LHC study with a workshop bringing together scientists and engineers from some 14 European institutions, supported through the European Commission’s seventh Framework programm ...

LHC to Restart in 2009

Dec 08, 2008

CERN today confirmed that the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will restart in 2009. This news forms part of an updated report, published last week, on the status of the LHC following a malfunction on 19 September.

LHC now colder than deep space

Oct 20, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- The LHC (Large Hadron Collider) is once again colder than deep space as it is prepared for experiments to resume in late November.

Recommended for you

X-rays probe LHC for cause of short circuit

Mar 27, 2015

The LHC has now transitioned from powering tests to the machine checkout phase. This phase involves the full-scale tests of all systems in preparation for beam. Early last Saturday morning, during the ramp-down, ...

New insights found in black hole collisions

Mar 27, 2015

New research provides revelations about the most energetic event in the universe—the merging of two spinning, orbiting black holes into a much larger black hole.

Swimming algae offer insights into living fluid dynamics

Mar 27, 2015

None of us would be alive if sperm cells didn't know how to swim, or if the cilia in our lungs couldn't prevent fluid buildup. But we know very little about the dynamics of so-called "living fluids," those ...

Fluctuation X-ray scattering

Mar 26, 2015

In biology, materials science and the energy sciences, structural information provides important insights into the understanding of matter. The link between a structure and its properties can suggest new ...

Hydrodynamics approaches to granular matter

Mar 26, 2015

Sand, rocks, grains, salt or sugar are what physicists call granular media. A better understanding of granular media is important - particularly when mixed with water and air, as it forms the foundations of houses and off-shore ...

User comments : 0

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.