A new concept in the field of voltage-gated ion channels

Aug 21, 2012 By Sathya Achia Abraham

(Phys.org) -- Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine researchers have uncovered a novel way by which the activity of voltage-gated potassium channels are regulated, according to a study published online last week in the Early Edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The findings may allow researchers to better understand and control how external signals – for example, hormones and neurotransmitters – can modulate excitability of cells. This understanding provides critical information on how to adjust cellular excitability when it needs to be stimulated.

By conducting basic science research, the team, led by Diomedes Logothetis, Ph.D., an internationally recognized leader in the study of and chair of the VCU School of ’s Department of Physiology and Biophysics, is hoping to understand the fundamental mechanisms by which membrane lipid-protein interactions regulate the of proteins, such as potassium (Kv) channels.

In this new study, Logothetis and his team have clarified the role of phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate, PIP2, a minor component of the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane that controls the activity of most ion channels and transporters.

They found PIP2 to be responsible for controlling the activation mechanism of Kv channels that reside in cells that generate electrical impulses to control heart rate and brain signaling.

Since the 1980s, investigators have known that the part of voltage-gated channels that senses membrane voltage changes is coupled to the pore via a linker called the S4-S5 linker. But it was not known until now that PIP2 regulates the activity of Kv channels by interacting with this helical linker.

“Our study showed that this helical structure interacts with PIP2 in the membrane to regulate how much the voltage sensor can pull on the pore to open it,” said Logothetis.

Explore further: Estrogen helps calm stressed cells, researchers find

More information: www.pnas.org/content/early/201… 8/10/1207901109.long

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HannesAlfven
1 / 5 (2) Aug 21, 2012
The cytoplasm is a gel, and gels possess an innate ability to produce ionic gradients without the need for pumps and channels. According to Gerald Pollack, treating the cytoplasm as an aqueous fluid confined by the cell membrane ignores the observational fact that many cells of the human body are observed to continue to operate even when their cell membranes have been compromised. Pollack demonstrates quite clearly in his book, Cells, Gels and the Engines of Life, that not only was the concept of magnetic resonance imaging initially based upon the structured water - cytoplasm-as-gel hypothesis, but a pathway for the origin of life also becomes apparent once a person understands that polymers also look like they have pumps and channels. The pump-and-channel inference is something that the students of biology should take a far closer look at, and people should be permitted to hold their own opinions on this, as it is a debate which has raged for more than half a century.
barakn
not rated yet Sep 08, 2012
The favored weapon in the microbial world is a protein complex that punches a hole in the membrane of a cell. Holes mean death. http://en.wikiped..._complex
Hannes is spouting pure gobbledygook.