Diamond in the rough: Half-century puzzle solved

Jul 20, 2012 By Kanani K.M. Lee
Shadows show severe damage from M-carbon.

(Phys.org) -- A Yale-led team of mineral physicists has for the first time confirmed through high-pressure experiments the structure of cold-compressed graphite, a form of carbon that is comparable in hardness to its cousin, diamond, but only requires pressure to synthesize. The researchers believe their findings could open the way for a super hard material that can withstand great force and can be used — as diamond-based materials are now — for many electronic and industrial applications. The study appears in Scientific Reports, a Nature journal.

Under normal conditions, pure carbon exhibits vastly different physical properties depending on its structure. For example, graphite is soft, but diamond is one of the hardest materials known. Graphite conducts electricity, but diamond is an insulator.

In the middle is the form of carbon confirmed by the Yale-led team, dubbed M-carbon and predicted by theoretical methods initially in 2006. M-carbon is made when graphite is compressed to pressures approximately 200,000 times room pressure, at room temperature.

Although changes were first observed in graphite under high pressure and room temperature conditions 50 years ago, it is only now that the crystal structure has been confirmed by experiment, using long duration x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and optical techniques to verify these predictions.

“Besides the unique mechanical properties discovered in M-carbon, we find that the transformation of to M-carbon is extremely sluggish and requires a long time to reach equilibrium, which may be the additional reason why this puzzle remained unsolved for the past half century,” said Yuejian Wang, the study’s first author and former postdoctoral researcher at Yale, who is now assistant professor of physics at Oakland University.

Researchers say this intermediate structure has much lower symmetry than diamond, but is as hard. In fact, “Our study shows that M-carbon is extremely incompressible and hard, rivaling the extreme properties of diamond so much that it damages diamond,” said principal investigator Kanani K.M. Lee, assistant professor of geology and geophysics at Yale.

Lee added, “Over the past few years, many theoretical computations have suggested at least a dozen different crystal structures for this new phase, but our experiments showed that only one crystal structure fits the data: M-carbon.”

Other authors are Joseph Panzik of Yale, and Boris Kiefer of New Mexico State University. The study was supported by grants from the Carnegie/Department of Energy (DOE) Alliance Center and by national synchrotron facilities supported by the DOE, National Science Foundation, and the W.M. Keck Foundation.

Explore further: Vacuum ultraviolet lamp of the future created in Japan

More information: Citation: Scientific Reports DOI: 10.1038/srep00520

Related Stories

Structure of new form of super-hard carbon identified

Nov 08, 2010

(PhysOrg.com) -- An experiment in 2003 formed what was believed to be a new form of carbon, but the findings were controversial. Now two teams of scientists have used different means to identify a three-dimensional ...

How diamonds emerge from graphite

Sep 21, 2011

Scientists have used a new method to precisely simulate the phase transition from graphite to diamond for the first time. Instead of happening concerted, all at once, the conversion evidently takes place in ...

Superhard carbon material could crack diamond

Dec 07, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- By applying extreme pressure to compress and flatten carbon nanotubes, scientists have discovered that they can create a new carbon polymer that simulations show is hard enough to crack diamond. ...

New carbon allotrope could have a variety of applications

Apr 22, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- Carbon comes in many different forms, and now scientists have predicted another new form, or allotrope, of carbon. The new form of carbon, which they call T-carbon, has very intriguing physical ...

Recommended for you

When things get glassy, molecules go fractal

1 hour ago

Colorful church windows, beads on a necklace and many of our favorite plastics share something in common—they all belong to a state of matter known as glasses. School children learn the difference between ...

Vacuum ultraviolet lamp of the future created in Japan

Apr 22, 2014

A team of researchers in Japan has developed a solid-state lamp that emits high-energy ultraviolet (UV) light at the shortest wavelengths ever recorded for such a device, from 140 to 220 nanometers. This ...

User comments : 3

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

baudrunner
1 / 5 (3) Jul 20, 2012
If it damages diamond, then it obviously went beyond the crystalline phase of diamond. Diamonds would therefore be easier and less time-consuming to manufacture than M-carbon, or would it?
eachus
not rated yet Jul 20, 2012
If it damages diamond, then it obviously went beyond the crystalline phase of diamond. Diamonds would therefore be easier and less time-consuming to manufacture than M-carbon, or would it?


Doesn't matter. Diamond is stable at low temperatures and pressures, the new M-carbon state, and an intermediate H-carbon state decay rapidly at low pressure.

Will it be possible to make "diamonoid" objects with M-carbon fibers in bulk diamond? Maybe. Right now even research on diamonoid structures like starting with carbon containing nanotubes and adding pressure and heat are in their initial stages. (The goal is to make materials like diamond in hardness and other properties, but that doesn't shatter when hit.)
irjsiq
1 / 5 (1) Jul 20, 2012
What is the distance from the Laboratory to the Factory?
How long must Graphite be held at high pressure, to 'transform'?
For making in quantity, what are the size limits of pressure chambers?
What are the costs of attaining such pressures?

More news stories

When things get glassy, molecules go fractal

Colorful church windows, beads on a necklace and many of our favorite plastics share something in common—they all belong to a state of matter known as glasses. School children learn the difference between ...

FCC to propose pay-for-priority Internet standards

The Federal Communications Commission is set to propose new open Internet rules that would allow content companies to pay for faster delivery over the so-called "last mile" connection to people's homes.

SK Hynix posts Q1 surge in net profit

South Korea's SK Hynix Inc said Thursday its first-quarter net profit surged nearly 350 percent from the previous year on a spike in sales of PC memory chips.