Archeologists unearth extraordinary human sculpture in Turkey

Jul 30, 2012
The head and torso of the human figure, intact to just above its waist, stands approximately 1.5 meters in height, suggesting a total body length of 3.5 to four meters. The figure’s face is bearded, with beautifully preserved inlaid eyes made of white and black stone, and its hair has been coiffed in an elaborate series of curls aligned in linear rows. Both arms are extended forward from the elbow, each with two arm bracelets decorated with lion heads. The figure’s right hand holds a spear, and in its left is a shaft of wheat. A crescent-shaped pectoral adorns its chest. A lengthy Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription, carved in raised relief across its back, records the campaigns and accomplishments of Suppiluliuma, likely the same Patinean king who faced a Neo-Assyrian onslaught of Shalmaneser III as part of a Syrian-Hittite coalition in 858 BC. Credit: Jennifer Jackson

A beautiful and colossal human sculpture is one of the latest cultural treasures unearthed by an international team at the Tayinat Archaeological Project (TAP) excavation site in southeastern Turkey. A large semi-circular column base, ornately decorated on one side, was also discovered. Both pieces are from a monumental gate complex that provided access to the upper citadel of Kunulua, capital of the Neo-Hittite Kingdom of Patina (ca. 1000-738 BC).

"These newly discovered Tayinat sculptures are the product of a vibrant local Neo-Hittite sculptural tradition," said Professor Tim Harrison, the Tayinat Project director and professor of Near Eastern Archaeology in the University of Toronto's Department of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations. "They provide a vivid glimpse into the innovative character and sophistication of the Iron Age cultures that emerged in the following the collapse of the great imperial powers of the at the end of the second millennium BC."

The head and torso of the human figure, intact to just above its waist, stands approximately 1.5 metres in height, suggesting a total body length of 3.5 to four metres. The figure's face is bearded, with beautifully preserved inlaid eyes made of white and black stone, and its hair has been coiffed in an elaborate series of curls aligned in linear rows. Both arms are extended forward from the elbow, each with two arm bracelets decorated with lion heads. The figure's right hand holds a spear, and in its left is a shaft of wheat. A crescent-shaped pectoral adorns its chest. A lengthy Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription, carved in raised relief across its back, records the campaigns and accomplishments of Suppiluliuma, likely the same Patinean king who faced a Neo-Assyrian onslaught of Shalmaneser III as part of a Syrian-Hittite coalition in 858 BC.

The head and torso of the human figure, intact to just above its waist, stands approximately 1.5 meters in height, suggesting a total body length of 3.5 to four meters. The figure’s face is bearded, with beautifully preserved inlaid eyes made of white and black stone, and its hair has been coiffed in an elaborate series of curls aligned in linear rows. Both arms are extended forward from the elbow, each with two arm bracelets decorated with lion heads. The figure’s right hand holds a spear, and in its left is a shaft of wheat. A crescent-shaped pectoral adorns its chest. A lengthy Hieroglyphic Luwian inscription, carved in raised relief across its back, records the campaigns and accomplishments of Suppiluliuma, likely the same Patinean king who faced a Neo-Assyrian onslaught of Shalmaneser III as part of a Syrian-Hittite coalition in 858 BC. Credit: Jennifer Jackson

The second sculpture is a large semi-circular column base, approximately one metre in height and 90 centimetres in diameter, lying on its side next to the human figure. A winged bull is carved on the front of the column and it is flanked by a sphinx on its left. The right side of the column is flat and undecorated, an indication that it originally stood against a wall.

"The two pieces appear to have been ritually buried in the paved stone surface of the central passageway through the Tayinat gate complex," said Harrison. The complex would have provided a monumental ceremonial approach to the upper citadel of the royal city. Tayinat, a large low-lying mound, is located 35 kilometres east of Antakya (ancient Antioch) along the Antakya-Aleppo road.

The presence of colossal human statues, often astride lions or sphinxes, in the citadel gateways of the Neo-Hittite royal cities of Syro-Anatolia continued a Bronze Age Hittite tradition that accentuated their symbolic role as boundary zones, and the role of the king as the divinely appointed guardian or gate keeper of the community. By the ninth and eighth centuries BC, these elaborately decorated gateways, with their ornately carved reliefs, had come to serve as dynastic parades, legitimizing the power of the ruling elite. The gate reliefs also formed linear narratives, guiding their audiences between the human and divine realms, with the king serving as the link between the two worlds.

The Tayinat gate complex appears to have been destroyed following the Assyrian conquest of the region in 738 BC, when the area was paved over and converted into the central courtyard of an Assyrian sacred precinct. These smashed and deposited monumental sculptures also include a magnificently carved lion that was discovered last year and Hieroglyphic Luwian-inscribed stelae (stone slabs or pillars used for commemoratives purposes). Together these finds hint of an earlier Neo-Hittite complex that might have once faced the gateway approach.

Scholars have long speculated that the reference to Calno, identified as one of the "kingdoms of the idols" in Isaiah's oracle against Assyria (Isaiah 10:9-10), alludes to the Assyrian devastation of Kunulua (i.e., Tayinat). The destruction of the Luwian monuments and conversion of the area into an Assyrian religious complex may represent the physical manifestation of this historic event, subsequently memorialized in Isaiah's oracle.

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User comments : 8

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Vendicar_Decarian
2.5 / 5 (8) Jul 30, 2012
Clearly this is a depiction of someone demanding a fork.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.6 / 5 (25) Jul 30, 2012
Looks a little like this guy.
http://onesixthne...en-bitte

Traffic cop.
flashgordon
3.5 / 5 (8) Jul 30, 2012
"kingdoms of the idols"

It's fascinating to read the Israelite account of the struggle for knowledge in the Bible; they go back and forth about single, multiple, female(Asherahs; wife of Elohim, or god; Elohim is a Phoenician god). Just like the evolution from multiple gods to single god, from god placed in heaven, to an infinit god to a god in another dimension, the evolution of god is part of mankinds progress from ignorance to knowledge(what separates us from the other animals on the planet; for the most part!). The Israelites ultimately put bans on idols and saying the word god and so on, because they don't want it proven wrong. They come to realize that the stone statues are not gods!

One of my favorite stories of Genesis is some female who hides her idols from someone banning idols; it's somewhere around chapter 30; maybe 29, maybe 31. It's cute!

Anyways, I've found fascinating connections between mythology and mathematics and have put together a blog about it!.

flashgordon
3 / 5 (6) Jul 30, 2012
my blog showing the unified view of everything. Not some apologists blog; but, showing rigorous connections.

http://wwwscienti...pot.com/
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.7 / 5 (26) Jul 30, 2012
the evolution of god is part of mankinds progress from ignorance to knowledge(what separates us from the other animals on the planet; for the most part!).
Except that the evolution of religion is not science but the refinement of ways of enthralling more people more effectively, and of usurping the other religions. It is a refinement of modes of conflict.

The religions which have not been able to learn and adapt all have been usurped. What we are left with are those most virulent, most ruthless, and most focused. One tool in their arsenal is the ability to SUPPRESS real knowledge and replace it with superstition.
Birger
not rated yet Jul 31, 2012
The variants of religion that ultimately spread best are those not rigid enough to stop the growth of dynamic economies and societies. Those were able to hitch a ride with expanding successful cultures.

Of course, once those cultures have spread far (Arab expansion, European colonialism) they can continue to function despite local regression of religion to fundamentalism.
In regard to iron-age cultures, the kingdoms in the Syria-Turkey area were big and autocratic, while the small Greek island polities allowed traders to attain political influence, paving the way for the Archaic and Classic Greek culture we know.
Estevan57
2.2 / 5 (24) Aug 01, 2012
Sounding pretty Nazi-like Otto, but that's not unusual for you.
TheGhostofOtto1923
2.8 / 5 (22) Aug 02, 2012
Sounding pretty Nazi-like Otto, but that's not unusual for you.
Nazis learned very well from the religious Formula. Their pseudoreligion was extremely successful in countering the virulent communist Rotfront pseudoreligion which was eating western Europe from within. They had uniforms too did you notice? Gott mit Uns.

Per the figure in the picture, gorgets have been around for a very long time.

Hey thanks for the opportunity to expound Auslander.

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