Ants farm root aphid clones in subterranean rooms

Jul 02, 2012
The yellow meadow ant, Lasius flavus, farms root aphids for sugar (honeydew) and nitrogen (protein). Credit: Aniek Ivens

The yellow meadow ant, Lasius flavus, farms root aphids for sugar (honeydew) and nitrogen (protein). In turn these species of aphids have developed distinctive traits never found in free living species such as the 'trophobiotic organ' to hold honey dew for the ants. New research published in BioMed Central's open access journal BMC Evolutionary Biology shows that over half of ant mounds contained only one of the three most common species of aphid, and two thirds of these has a single aphid clone. Even in mounds which contained more than one species of aphid 95% of the aphid chambers contained individuals of a single clone.

Aphid farming by ants is considered to be mutualistic. The ants cultivate and protect the which in turn provide food for the ants. In farming mutualism, monocultures may reduce competition and are perhaps the result of husbandry (caused by the ants selecting the best aphids for their needs).

Researchers from the University of Copenhagen, University of Groningen and Rockefeller University used DNA microsatellite analysis to look at the of the three most common of root aphids (Geoica utricularia, Tetraneura ulmi, and Forda marginata) within L. flavus nests, within nests, and single aphid chambers.

Results indicated that while there was considerable aphid diversity within the 7 km test site at all sampling levels (ant mound, soil sample and chamber), monocultures occurred more frequently than expected. 52% of mounds and 99% of aphid chambers contained a single species and 60% of these contained a single clone. When multiple species or clones existed in the same mound they were kept separated.

Aniek Ivens, who led this research, explained, "Although two years later most ant mounds seemed to contain the same clones, two mounds had gained new clones of their species. It is possible that either these aphids have been brought in or that they were previously at a very low level in the mound and missed during an earlier survey."

The combination of underground nesting, aphid clones, and very low gene flow between aphid populations has allowed L. flavus to evolve an unusual form of symbiosis. Miss Ivens continued, "In a parallel with human farming methods this most likely gives colonies the possibility to actively manage the diversity and abundance of their livestock - allowing maximal honeydew yield from mature aphids that are kept under optimal conditions of phloem feeding and ant care. Ants also secure dietary protein by eating the excess of young aphids, and replacement of their honeydew-producing livestock when adult aphids become less productive."

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More information: Ants farm subterranean aphids mostly in clone groups: an example of prudent husbandry for carbohydrates and proteins?
Aniek BF Ivens, Daniel JC Kronauer, Ido Pen, Franz J Weissing and Jacobus J Boomsma, BMC Evolutionary Biology (in press)

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User comments : 6

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Squirrel
5 / 5 (1) Jul 02, 2012
The provisional free access pdf for this paper can be found here
http://www.biomed...abstract
MrVibrating
5 / 5 (1) Jul 02, 2012
..so this goes beyond symbiosis... it's basically domestication isn't it? Fascinating..
alfie_null
2 / 5 (1) Jul 02, 2012
Do they forage for aphids? If you could somehow remove all the aphids from a colony, how would the ants react? How do new colonies get their aphids? From the wild? Or by somehow raiding other colonies?
JGHunter
3 / 5 (2) Jul 02, 2012
This is fascinating. I knew about grass cutting ants that gathered grass they couldn't consume in order to feed fungi that they farmed in the mounds which they could consume, a form of agriculture, but now, this is effectively animal husbandry. Ants are not only doing what we do, but they're doing it better, probably more "humanely".

Truly fascinating.
antialias_physorg
3.3 / 5 (3) Jul 02, 2012
but they're doing it better, probably more "humanely".

I'm not sure that 'humanely' is even applicable here (even in quotation marks). Ants use aphids as long as they are useful. When they no longer produce (or die) they are thrown out. It's about what is useful to the ants - and anything else wouldn't make much sense in an evolutionary context.

That humans, by contrast, care (e.g. for each other) is also based on the same type of behavior. The only difference is that we introspect and plan/simulate the future in our heads. We want to be cared for - even beyond an age/state in which we are of use to others so we, in turn, care for those who are (objectively) 'of no more use' to us. But the idea that others will therfore care for us if of use.

Note that 'use' can have many different meanings here. In this context emotional bonds (e.g. to an ailing parent) or even preventing the severing of those bonds are a 'use'.
JGHunter
1 / 5 (1) Aug 14, 2012
antialias_physorg

Very true, but I'm not talking about how ants treat each other, rather their livestock. Ants may take a seemingly amoral approach to the aphids, but do they cram as many aphids in one space as possible, at the cost of quality of production by the aphids? Or do they only bring in enough to achieve a balance? By contrast, humans all too often take very little interest in the welfare of livestock, particularly chickens and pigs.

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