Is it time to return to the Moon?

Jun 15, 2012 by JASON MAJOR
The Luna 3 spacecraft returned the first views ever of the far side of the Moon. The first image was taken at 03:30 UT on 7 October at a distance of 63,500 km after Luna 3 had passed the Moon and looked back at the sunlit far side. The last image was taken 40 minutes later from 66,700 km. A total of 29 photographs were taken, covering 70% of the far side. The photographs were very noisy and of low resolution, but many features could be recognized. This is the first image returned by Luna 3, taken by the wide-angle lens, it showed the far side of the Moon was very different from the near side, most noticeably in its lack of lunar maria (the dark areas). The right three-quarters of the disk are the far side. The dark spot at upper right is Mare Moscoviense, the dark area at lower left is Mare Smythii. The small dark circle at lower right with the white dot in the center is the crater Tsiolkovskiy and its central peak. The Moon is 3475 km in diameter and north is up in this image. (Luna 3-1)

Humans haven’t set foot on the Moon -- or any other world outside of our own, for that matter -- since Cernan and Schmitt departed the lunar surface on December 14, 1972. That will make 40 years on that date this coming December. And despite dreams of moon bases and lunar colonies, there hasn’t even been a controlled landing there since the Soviet Luna 24 sample return mission in 1976 (not including impacted probes.) So in light of the challenges and costs of such an endeavor, is there any real value in a return to the Moon?

Some scientists are saying yes.

Researchers from the UK, Germany and The Netherlands have submitted a paper to the journal Planetary and Space Science outlining the scientific importance of future lunar surface missions. Led by Ian A. Crawford from London’s Birkbeck College, the paper especially focuses on the value of the in the study of our own planet and its formation, the development of the Earth-Moon system as well as other rocky worlds  and even its potential contribution in life science and medicinal research.

Even though some research on the lunar surface may be able to be performed by robotic missions, Crawford et al. ultimately believe that “addressing them satisfactorily will require an end to the 40-year hiatus of lunar surface exploration.”

The team’s paper outlines many different areas of research that would benefit from future exploration, either manned or robotic. Surface composition, lunar volcanism, cratering history — and thus insight into a proposed period of “heavy bombardment” that seems to have affected the inner Solar System over 3.8 billion years ago — as well as the presence of water ice could be better investigated with manned missions, Crawford et al. suggest.

In addition, the “crashed remains of unsterilized spacecraft” on the Moon warrant study, proposes Crawford’s team. No, we’re not talking about alien spaceships — unless the aliens are us! The suggestion is that the various machinery we’ve sent to the lunar surface since the advent of the Space Age may harbor Earthly microbes that could be returned for study after decades in a lunar environment. Such research could shed new light on how life can — or can’t — survive in a space environment, as well as how long such “contaminants” might linger on another world.

Crawford’s team also argues that only manned missions could offer all-important research on the long-term effects of low-gravity environments on human physiology, as well as how to best sustain exploration crews in space. If we are to ever become a society with the ability to explore and exist beyond our own planet, such knowledge is critical.

And outside of lunar exploration itself, the Moon offers a place from which to perform deeper study of the Universe. The lunar farside, shielded as it is from radio transmissions and other interference from Earth, would be a great place for radio astronomy — especially in the low-frequency range of 10-30 MHz, which is absorbed by Earth’s ionosphere and is thus relatively unavailable to ground-based telescopes. A radio observatory on the lunar farside would have a stable platform from which to observe some of the earliest times of the Universe, between the Big Bang and the formation of the first stars.

Of course, before anything can be built on the Moon or retrieved from its surface, serious plans must be made for such missions. Fortunately, says Crawford’s team, the 2007 Global Exploration Strategy — a framework for exploration created by 13 space agencies from around the world — puts the Moon as the “nearest and first goal” for future missions, as well as Mars and asteroids. Yet with subsequent budget cuts for NASA (a key player for many exploration missions) when and how that goal will be reached still remains to be seen.

See the team’s full paper on arXiv.org here, and check out a critical review on MIT’s Technology Review.

“…this long hiatus in exploration has been to the detriment of lunar and planetary science, and indeed of other sciences also, and that the time has come to resume the robotic and human exploration of the surface of the Moon.”

– Ian A. Crawford, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birkbeck College, UK

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Vendicar_Decarian
2.2 / 5 (10) Jun 15, 2012
Many Americans believe that they never actually made it to the moon.

realist2012
4.4 / 5 (7) Jun 16, 2012
Many foreigners believe that "Many Americans" watch and believe weird conspiracy documentaries.
Terriva
1 / 5 (5) Jun 16, 2012
It's time to implement cold fusion or to prepare for survival of nuclear war. Moon will wait for us, after all - it did so three billions of years already.
PussyCat_Eyes
1.5 / 5 (17) Jun 16, 2012
Yes....it's time to return to the Moon. But first, Obama has to destroy America completely in the next 4 years. Vendicar_De Idiot can't wait for it to happen, right VD?
PussyCat_Eyes
1.6 / 5 (12) Jun 16, 2012
Terriva....I'd like to know...have you ever experienced Rossi's cold fusion machine? Did you see it in action, and did you take notes, input of energy and output of energy? Are you only going by what Rossi tells you without first hand knowledge? Have you had a working prototype in your home for several weeks or months?
Terriva
1 / 5 (4) Jun 16, 2012
have you ever experienced Rossi's cold fusion machine
I don't understand your question. Andrea Rossi claims energy yield of his cold fusion about 600%, but Piantelli and Focardi published energy yield about 300% before twenty years already with full details about their experiments published in official journals of Italian Academy of Science! If mainstream physicists were not willing to attempt for replication of theirs perfectly documented experiments presented in mainstream press, why they "wait" for more informations about it just from Andrea Rossi? Isn't it already evident, that the mainstream physics prohibits the implementation of cold fusion with all means possible?
Terriva
1 / 5 (6) Jun 16, 2012
Did you see it in action, and did you take notes, input of energy and output of energy?
Did you ever see the boson condensate or Z-boson in action? Do you have some working prototype of it at your home? If not - why do you still believe in it and not in the publications of Foccardi and Rossi? They're the same physicists, like the others and they had spent twenty years with their experiments and published dozen of publications about it. The application of double standards is an evidence of pathological skepticism, which is hostile to all progress of human society.
PussyCat_Eyes
1 / 5 (6) Jun 17, 2012
Terriva...a working model is essential if you expect people to believe in it....and eventually buy it.
Rossi could be a charlatan and you and others might be the victims of promises without hope of actual delivery. For your own sake, get Rossi to loan you one model for a week as a trial period before you buy. If he says no, then take your money elsewhere. Don't be foolish....there's too many con games around to part you from your money. It might be agonizing to find out that you've been had, but it's best to find out now rather than years from now.
PussyCat_Eyes
1.7 / 5 (6) Jun 17, 2012
If a bunch of guys came to your house wanting to fix your roof, but didn't want to sign a contract and give references and get a building permit, would you let them do it just because they work cheap? There's too much corruption in this world, and all kinds of methods for cheating. You've gotten your hopes up so high, I can see that. But Rossi and the others might all be in on the fix. Do yourself the favor of determining for yourself if it works or not. If that thing has to be plugged in all the time and is drawing more power than giving out...well, at least you will know...maybe even be the whistleblower.
Ever hear of Erin Brockovich? Look up her story and you'll see what I mean. All kinds of crooks in the world, Terriva....and they're out to get us, that's a fact.
Terriva
1 / 5 (6) Jun 17, 2012
For your own sake, get Rossi to loan you one model for a week as a trial period before you buy. If he says no, then take your money elsewhere.
Approach of A. Rossi is the evidence of the only thing: the cold fusion catalyst is very easy to imitate. After all, its results don't differ from Piantelli/Focardi results very much - so I do presume, they're the same: just a pure Raney nickel. The strategy of Rossi is therefore to use the period, when people don't believe in cold fusion for development of cheap production technology, which would allow him to beat the competition with low prices instead of hiding technical details. I would do the very same being him.

The people who are saying Andrea Rossi is a cheater just forgot the one thing: the same technology is here for twenty years and nobody calls the Piantelli and Focardi cheaters, although they're publishing the same results for years. Everybody talks just about Rossi by now for to cover this twenty years standing ignorance.
Terriva
1 / 5 (5) Jun 17, 2012
..get Rossi to loan you one model for a week as a trial period before you buy. If he says no..
This is nonsense: the selling of technology to home end users is very different from selling of financial investment products for example, where the risk is already included in contract. Andrea Rossi has said many times, he will guarantee guarantee period with full money return - after all, this period is guaranteed with law in most countries including the USA and Mr. Rossi is perfectly aware of it. If he would sell a not working device, the he would end in the jail immediately and the people would eat him alive.
Arx_Ferrum
2.3 / 5 (3) Jun 17, 2012
Our so-called science president has far more important things to do... like, giving American jobs to illegal aliens. Besides that, he's already gutted NASA and most of its funding. Except for the money they raised in a bake sale a week back, they depend on donations from Goodwill and the Salvation Army to keep supplying the ISS.
Skepticus
2 / 5 (4) Jun 17, 2012
The first ones to establish a base on the Moon will have the whole Moon (almost-US's fist landing spot, other hardware left there are taken spots) to choose the best location. The Moon may belong to all mankind, but all the late comers will have to settle for less ideal location. First come, best served!
SatanLover
1 / 5 (9) Jun 17, 2012
No human has ever set foot on the moon.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.1 / 5 (18) Jun 17, 2012
I don't understand your question.
Terriva... Pussy/Ritchie/russkiye/piro doesn't understand his/her/it's question. Why do you attempt to answer him/her/it?
For your own sake, get Rossi to loan you one model for a week as a trial period before you buy. If he says no, then take your money elsewhere.
Why yes I tried this at a ford dealership but it didn't work so I went to a Lexus dealership but it didn't work there either. Why is that p/r/r/p? That's ok I am sure you don't understand the question.

Oh hey - I had an idea. Why don't you call NASA and ask them to put microphones on the next lunar landers so we can listen in on moonmen conversating? What no air on the moon you say? Well maybe moonmen don't need air to conversate. Ask them.
PS3
1.5 / 5 (8) Jun 17, 2012
I would like to see if some other country can make it to the moon.My bet is they won't ever try for fear of being mocked that they can't accomplish what Americans did it 50 years ago.
Rhada
3 / 5 (1) Jun 17, 2012

This is totally strange, because according to some austronauts who headed that mission, they say that they saw lights and weird spacecrafts sorrounding their spacecrafts, I don't believe they're lying, or may be that: Are they hiding something about it?
Rhada
not rated yet Jun 17, 2012

I think this is time to return to The Moon to claim for answers.
rbrtwjohnson
1 / 5 (2) Jun 17, 2012
It would be very interesting returning to the Moon to build a permanent base over there to mine helium-3 for fusion-powered starships to go to Mars, Jupiter and beyond in order to settle several manmade advanced colonies in our solar system still in our lifetime.
http://www.youtub...-QYqqxzM
Terriva
1 / 5 (5) Jun 17, 2012
IMO if Piantelli/Focardi and Rossi are right, the cold fusion will wipe all plans about helium-3 based fusion as well. Andrea Rossi device is able to work at 600 C by now and it reportedly produces 12 kW from 50 ccm sized reactor. The ITER tokamak planned is supposed to produce 500 MWatts of energy and its plasma volume is 840 cubic metres. The corresponding E-Cat generator would produce over 200 GWatts, if I'm computing correctly. The problem is, the tocamak plasma must remain compact as it cannot be cooled in other way, then with radiation, whereas the E-Cat could be miniaturized, which would enable to intensify the heat transport with conduction substantially. The another question is, what the Moon base will be good for. We need the reliable and ecologically clean source of energy instead of adventurous projects motivated with cold war and propaganda.
PussyCat_Eyes
1 / 5 (7) Jun 17, 2012
Terriva....I suppose you have invested in Rossi's research....so you are assuming that he is bona fide and wouldn't dream of running off once his funding from various sources has run out. Good luck on that, kiddo. I sincerely hope that you're right and he delivers the goods.

I see that the NAZI-LOVER TheGhostofOtto1923 has been here to drop off his lies and innuendoes. His stench remains. Please, will someone fumigate this thread. His hero and idol is OTTO SKORZENY, the NAZI SS officer who sucked up to Adolph Hitler to become his secretary and hatchet-man. Check out these links....
http://phys.org/p...tto1932/

http://en.wikiped...Skorzeny
Vendicar_Decarian
1.8 / 5 (5) Jun 17, 2012
If Romney is elected, budget cuts will push the U.S. economy into a deep recession that the U.S. will not recover from for more than a decade.

"Obama has to destroy America completely in the next 4 years" - PussyCaTard

40 years of borrow and spend Republicanism has successfully bankrupted the American state - as long been the Republican Plan.
Vendicar_Decarian
2.8 / 5 (6) Jun 17, 2012
"Our so-called science president has far more important things to do... like, giving American jobs to illegal aliens." - JigabooJones

All you have to do is lower your standards and pay expectations and you can have one of those "illegal alien" jobs too.

"Besides that, he's already gutted NASA and most of its funding." - JigabooJones

NASA and every other government program has to be completely shut down if the American People want to avoid tax increases and reduce their deficit to zero while maintainng a military.

That is the reality that 40 years of Borrow and Spend Republicanism has left America.

MasterFoo
4 / 5 (4) Jun 18, 2012
@Vendicar going back to the 75th congress(1937-1939)
Republicans held majorities for 8 congresses and Democrats for 28...

since 82 your 40 years... 7 republican majorities 9 democrat...
So please get your facts straight besides the truth of the matter is both want to borrow, tax and spend far more than we have...
TkClick
2.3 / 5 (3) Jun 18, 2012
Terriva....I suppose you have invested in Rossi's research..
I don't care about Rossi's research at all. It's the research of Piantelli and Focardi, which was ignored for twenty years - not of Andrea Rossi, who neither invented the cold fusion, neither published something about it. The scientists aren't obliged to care about on private demos of individuals of disputable background and quality. But at the moment, when the opened reproducible description of experiments is available, then the scientists should handle it with caution instead. Contemporary physics just demonstrated again, if lacks the mechanism, how to deal with such informations. It's fucking the whole-life work of serious scientists in the same way, like the presentations of Andrea Rossi. We can just ask, why the scientists do require the private know-how from Rossi (and violate the principles of private property in this way), if they ignored public informations about experiments published with Piantelli and Focardi
TheDoctor
3 / 5 (4) Jun 18, 2012
It would appear the Chinese think the Moon is an important goal. Right now although their space program is primative, if they continue with successes, by 2012 their space program...well let's just say the "west" will be building moon rockets.
PussyCat_Eyes
1 / 5 (6) Jun 18, 2012
I don't understand your question.
Terriva... Pussy/Ritchie/russkiye/piro doesn't understand his/her/it's question. Why do you attempt to answer him/her/it?
For your own sake, get Rossi to loan you one model for a week as a trial period before you buy.


Once again, the NAZI-LOVER TheGhostofOtto1923 drops the ball. If he had read my post, he would've noticed that I DIDN'T TELL TERRIVA THAT I DIDN'T UNDERSTAND HIS QUESTION.
It was Terriva who didn't understand MY question. GhostofOttoSkorzeny appears to need desperately to go back to school for remedial reading classes, according to a PM by Ferris Bueller.
Thanks for the info, Ferris.
:)
PussyCat_Eyes
1 / 5 (6) Jun 18, 2012
It would appear the Chinese think the Moon is an important goal. Right now although their space program is primative, if they continue with successes, by 2012 their space program...well let's just say the "west" will be building moon rockets.
- TheDoctor

Or underground bunkers.
I would say by 2020 at the earliest

Now watch TheGhostofOtto1923 repudiate my comment, and then offer his own stupid ass opinion.
I think the Spiritual Manifestation of Otto Skorzeny, the WW2 NAZI SS officer, is in love with me.
Oh yucky poo....makes me want to vomit.
PussyCat_Eyes
1 / 5 (6) Jun 18, 2012
@Terriva
Did Rossi pay Piantelli and Focardi for the rights to their invention? Did he obtain and sign a contract to continue their research? The one you keep mentioning is Andrea Rossi in connection with C.F.
And you do it incessantly without giving anyone cause to believe in the process. You only cite the work of these people and make excuses for their not revealing much about the process.
If the darn thing really worked, then why would Rossi and the other two depend on main stream scientists to prove it also? They should just take out a patent(s and mass produce it. Rossi has been taking way too long, and eventually, all these investors will get the hint that it's not going to work.
Give them an ultimatum...either mass produce it soon or shut up.
LagomorphZero
1 / 5 (1) Jun 19, 2012

This is totally strange, because according to some austronauts who headed that mission, they say that they saw lights and weird spacecrafts sorrounding their spacecrafts, I don't believe they're lying, or may be that: Are they hiding something about it?


I'm pretty sure these are the lights they are referring to: http://www.univer...n-space/

As for reports of spacecraft, I cannot say, but I would expect some more evidence than personal testimony.
Maat
2.7 / 5 (7) Jun 19, 2012
No human has ever set foot on the moon.


You're an idiot.

I suppose martians delivered the reflectors that we set up on the surface to measure the Earth-Moon distance with a laser beam, right?
Rhada
5 / 5 (1) Jun 19, 2012

Something, I cannot understand is that Astrounats saw those lights really close, that is the reason, I would like to get more information about the Astronauts' sightings. If someone else can show me more I will be so grateful. Thanks LogomorphZero for the information you provided me in here it was really interesting.
Fluidizer
2 / 5 (4) Jun 22, 2012
It's time to implement cold fusion or to prepare for survival of nuclear war. Moon will wait for us, after all - it did so three billions of years already.

Terri, you do know that Helium 3 (HE-3) is required for cold fusion, correct? It is rare on Earth, and is sought for use in nuclear fusion research. The abundance of helium-3 is thought to be greater on the Moon (embedded in the upper layer of regolith by the solar wind over billions of years) and the solar system's gas giants (left over from the original solar nebula), though still low in quantity (28 ppm of lunar regolith is helium-4 and from 1 ppb to 50 ppb is helium-3).
So Terri, in order to have your cold fusion, we must return to the Moon. Educate yourself.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.2 / 5 (15) Jun 22, 2012
Terri, you do know that Helium 3 (HE-3) is required for cold fusion, correct?
Incorrect. LENR produces He3 as a byproduct. Educate yourself.
xen_uno
1 / 5 (4) Jun 22, 2012
Here's how low our socialist-in-chief will go ...

http://www.barack...=twitter

... still have that man crush Ven?

As far as moon goes, it's a waste of time and money at this point. If private corps want to undertake the venture that's fine as they can take the losses and I won't have to pay for them thru taxes (barring an Obama bail out of course). No technology now or future will ever make a moon trip as routine and cheap as boarding a plane for your fave vacation spot. So all you non multi-millionaires, don't bother booking a flight as you can't afford it.
PussyCat_Eyes
1 / 5 (6) Jun 23, 2012
Here's how low our socialist-in-chief will go ...

http://www.barack...=twitter

... still have that man crush Ven?

As far as moon goes, it's a waste of time and money at this point. If private corps want to undertake the venture that's fine as they can take the losses and I won't have to pay for them thru taxes (barring an Obama bail out of course). No technology now or future will ever make a moon trip as routine and cheap as boarding a plane for your fave vacation spot. So all you non multi-millionaires, don't bother booking a flight as you can't afford it.


Uncle Barack would call it "private corpse". There's at least one in all 57 states.
PS3
1 / 5 (2) Jun 24, 2012
No human has ever set foot on the moon.


You're an idiot.

I suppose martians delivered the reflectors that we set up on the surface to measure the Earth-Moon distance with a laser beam, right?

That is not really good proof because they could have sent by robot if wanted to like the Russians did :p
xen_uno
1 / 5 (2) Jun 24, 2012
satanlover >> "No human has ever set foot on the moon"

Maat .. you don't think he was serious do you? LOL
T1154
1 / 5 (2) Jul 11, 2012
No man has set foot on the moon,and maybe never will.But men have set their boots on the surface ,and no doubt if we looked carefully enough we would see the imprints they made. You may think that this is a silly comment, but I think there is little doubt that most people on Earth would agree with it .
It was one of the first objectives for mankind in their insatiable desire to 'boldly go' in pursuit of their destiny .Believe it and support it!