Soccer study finds 93 percent of fans would support openly gay players

May 31, 2012

There are over 500,000 professional footballers, yet openly gay players appear almost entirely absent. It is often claimed that the problem lies with an intolerant fan culture, but a new study reveals that 93% of football fans oppose homophobia and would support openly gay players. The study, published in the British Journal of Sociology, identifies conservative clubs and agents to be the sport's strongest barriers to change.

The study, led by Professor Ellis Cashmore and Dr Jamie Cleland from Staffordshire University, sampled the views of 3,500 supporters through an anonymous in the first of in fan culture.

"It is commonly believed that is not ready for openly gay players," said Cashmore. "In 2010 the English Football Association dropped a campaign to tackle homophobia, while the Professional Footballer's Association stated that such a campaign would be more appropriate when crowds are "a bit more civilised."

In stark contrast 93% of supporters stated that they opposed homophobia and would support openly gay players as only their performance on the pitch matters; giving lie to the popular conception that supporters create a culture of intolerance.

The research was the broadest yet conducted on . 83% of were male, 2% were under-16 while 52% were aged 17-18. While the majority of supporters were from the UK, with 85% supporting British teams, the survey received responses from 35 countries.

From the answers four clear ideas emerged which appear to represent supporters' attitudes to homophobia: the supportive attitude of fans towards homosexual footballers, comparisons with racism in the 1980's, the need for greater transparency from football's governing organisations, and the decisive role of clubs and agents in creating and maintaining a culture of secrecy.

"Even in light of this new finding the fact remains that there has only been one openly gay player in the history of British football," said Dr Cleland. "Fans blame agents who are afraid of losing their commissions and conservative clubs who wish to maintain the status quo. It is the market which controls football which prohibits gay players coming out."

"Almost every major announcement about homophobia in football assumes that supporters are hostile to gay players," concluded Cashmore. "We have provided the first evidence that gay players would meet with approval from fans of all ages and backgrounds, tempered of course by fans rivalry, which proves the idea of ingrained homophobia in fan culture to be false."

The researchers followed this project by collecting the views of and players over the past 30-years to explore the issue of racism in football. Their new project launches this week at www.topfan.co.uk, and invites views on whether Britain is regressing towards an uncivilized condition in which people are more inclined to casual aggression.

Explore further: New 'Surveyman' software promises to revolutionize survey design and accuracy

More information: Cashmore. E, Cleland. J, ‘Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment’, British Journal of Sociology, Wiley-Blackwell, May 2012, DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01414.x

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

UK study: Fans in the boardroom good for football

Jun 23, 2010

(PhysOrg.com) -- A study by University of Manchester economists has backed calls from supporters groups who argue that their representation in the boardroom is generally good for football.

Sports machismo may be cue to male teen violence

Jan 23, 2008

The sports culture surrounding football and wrestling may be fueling aggressive and violent behavior not only among teen male players but also among their male friends and peers on and off the field, according to a Penn State ...

New study suggests gender gap around homophobic bullying

Apr 26, 2012

A new study from Educational and Psychological Measurement (published by SAGE) found that when it comes to homophobic bullying, there could be a gender gap. While male victims are more likely to be bullied by male homoph ...

Recommended for you

World population likely to peak by 2070

Oct 23, 2014

World population will likely peak at around 9.4 billion around 2070 and then decline to around 9 billion by 2100, according to new population projections from IIASA researchers, published in a new book, World Population and ...

Bullying in schools is still prevalent, national report says

Oct 23, 2014

Despite a dramatic increase in public awareness and anti-bullying legislation nationwide, the prevalence of bullying is still one of the most pressing issues facing our nation's youth, according to a report by researchers ...

Study examines effects of credentialing, personalization

Oct 23, 2014

Chris Gamrat, a doctoral student in learning, design and technology, recently had his study—completed alongside Heather Zimmerman, associate professor of education; Jaclyn Dudek, a doctoral student studying learning, design ...

User comments : 1

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Scott_Ogawa
not rated yet Jun 02, 2012
I attended Stanford. I found it puzzling that there were no openly gay male football or basketball players. The campus culture was undeniably tolerant, and a gay athlete would not only be accepted, but celebrated. What makes this even more puzzling is that schools like Stanford offer a safe place for gay athletes NATIONWIDE -- gay high school students can choose their college, and superstar athletes will have lots of options. Yet among ALL top high school recruits, not a single openly gay superstar athlete at Stanford? A real puzzle.

I finally decided that it is not just about homophobia in sports. Instead - and I say all this as a full supporter of gay rights - there really are very few (perhaps close to zero) elite gay male athletes.

This sounds crazy, yet we accept that men are better athletes than women. Maybe it is really that people attracted to woman are better athletes than people attracted to men. (This also explains why there are so many lesbian athletes.)