The sea as a rubbish tip

Apr 17, 2012

Biologists have prepared guidelines for a more precise investigation into marine pollution from microplastic particles.

Large quantities of globally produced plastics end up in the oceans where they represent a growing risk. Above all very small objects, so-called microplastic particles, are endangering the lives of the many . An estimate of how greatly the oceans are polluted with microplastic particles has so far failed in the absence of globally comparable methods of investigation and data. Together with British and Chilean colleagues, scientists of the German Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in the Helmholtz Association have now analysed all published studies on this topic and have proposed standardised guidelines for the recording and characterisation of microplastic particles in the sea.

washed on to the beach are as much a part of the coast as the sound of . What the eye does not see are the innumerable ultra-small objects which float in the water, are washed on to the beach or settle on the . Scientists refer to these plastic particles as "microplastic particles", understanding these to mean plastic objects whose diameter is less than five millimetres – whereby the majority of microplastic particles are smaller than a grain of sand or the tip of a needle. It is this property that also makes them so dangerous to the sea dwellers. "Microplastic particles are swallowed by organisms and absorbed via the digestive tract. It has been possible, for example, to detect them in the tissue of mussels or other animals", says Dr. Lars Gutow, biologist at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in the Helmholtz Association. Toxic substances also attach to the small particles in the sea which then enter the food chain in this way and may therefore ultimately be dangerous to humans.

Lars Gutow and colleagues from the Universidad Católica del Norte in Chile and the School of Marine Science and Engineering in Plymouth have now jointly addressed the question as to how greatly the oceans of the world are polluted with microplastic particles. The analysed 68 scientific publications on this subject and determined that the results are difficult to compare. "Very different methods were used in these studies which is why it could not be understood whether the observed regional differences in the distribution of the plastic particles are real or whether they are attributable to the methods of recording", explains Prof. Martin Thiel, initiator of the now published comparative study and scientist at the Universidad Católica del Norte. It emerged that 100,000 times more microplastic particles could be fished out of the water column if a net with a mesh of 85 micrometres was used instead of one with 450 micrometres.

Based on these findings the international team of researchers has now for the first time prepared guidelines for the recording and characterisation of microplastic particles and has published these in the Environmental Science & Technology journal in which the scientists also explain the possible origins of the plastic waste. "Microplastic particles reach the seas in different ways. A large share is accounted for by so-called plastic pellets used as a raw material in the manufacture of plastic products such as computer housings and other everyday articles. If these pellets are handled carelessly, during ship loading for example, many may be blown away by the wind and fall into the sea", explains Lars Gutow.

Microplastic particles are also to be found in cosmetics and cleaning agents, however. "Very small are used as "abrasives" in many a peeling product. They then reach the sea via sewage water and rivers", says the biologist. And finally every plastic bottle, every plastic bag floating on the sea, one day disintegrates into countless microparticles. "It can take years for larger plastic parts to disintegrate primarily through physical processes. The UV radiation of the sun makes the plastic brittle. It is then broken down into ever smaller parts from the waves and friction processes", says Lars Gutow.

The smallest particles so far detected had a diameter of one micrometre which is one thousandth of a millimetre. Complex investigations are required to be able to determine such tiny plastic objects exactly and clarify their origins. "We recommend to every scientist to analyse very small microplastic particles using an infrared spectroscope. This procedure uncovers the constituents and permits an exact identification as a plastic", says Lars Gutow.

The scientists also point out gaps in their knowledge in their research guidelines. "The topic of plastics in the sea has become considerably more important in recent years. There is a lot of research going on. Nevertheless we do not know, for example, whether and in which quantity microplastic particles are deposited on rocky shores and in salt marshes. The latter are above all known for having a high retention potential for particles. Whether this also applies to microplastic particles is not so far known", says Martin Thiel who is examining the contamination of the Chilean coast with microplastic particles.

If in the future all marine researchers used standardised methods to record the microplastic particles based on the recommendations of this comparative study, then not only the reliability of their results ought to increase considerably. This then offers the chance of determining the final fate of microplastic accumulating in the world's oceans and to uncover the consequences of this pollution for the ecological systems and therefore for humans.

Explore further: Researchers question emergency water treatment guidelines

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Janus particles: particles with two faces

Sep 18, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- Researchers at the MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology at the University of Twente, The Netherlands, have devised a method for fabricating Janus particles, so called because, like the Roman ...

Europe may ban plastic bags

May 18, 2011

With each European using 500 plastic bags per year, and tonnes of plastic littering the Mediterranean, the European Commission may ban them from stores or tax them to combat pollution.

Ingestion of plastic found among small ocean fish

Mar 11, 2011

Southern California researchers have found evidence of ingestion of plastic among small fish in the northern Pacific Ocean in a study that they say shows the troubling effect floating litter is having on marine life in the ...

Recommended for you

Researchers question emergency water treatment guidelines

16 hours ago

The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommendations for treating water after a natural disaster or other emergencies call for more chlorine bleach than is necessary to kill disease-causing pathogens ...

European climate at the +2 C global warming threshold

18 hours ago

A global warming of 2 C relative to pre-industrial climate has been considered as a threshold which society should endeavor to remain below, in order to limit the dangerous effects of anthropogenic climate change.

User comments : 0

More news stories

Melting during cooling period

(Phys.org) —A University of Maine research team says stratification of the North Atlantic Ocean contributed to summer warming and glacial melting in Scotland during the period recognized for abrupt cooling ...

Warm US West, cold East: A 4,000-year pattern

Last winter's curvy jet stream pattern brought mild temperatures to western North America and harsh cold to the East. A University of Utah-led study shows that pattern became more pronounced 4,000 years ago, ...

New clinical trial launched for advance lung cancer

Cancer Research UK is partnering with pharmaceutical companies AstraZeneca and Pfizer to create a pioneering clinical trial for patients with advanced lung cancer – marking a new era of research into personalised medicines ...

More vets turn to prosthetics to help legless pets

A 9-month-old boxer pup named Duncan barreled down a beach in Oregon, running full tilt on soft sand into YouTube history and showing more than 4 million viewers that he can revel in a good romp despite lacking ...