Astronomers map dark matter distribution in 3D in Abell 383 galaxy cluster

Mar 14, 2012
The dark matter in Abell 383 is stretched out like a gigantic football with the point of the football is aligned close to the line of sight. The X-ray data (purple) from Chandra in the composite image show the hot gas, which is by far the dominant type of normal matter in the cluster. Galaxies are shown with the optical data from the Hubble, the Very Large Telescope, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, colored in blue and white. Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Caltech/A.Newman et al/Tel Aviv/A.Morandi & M.Limousin; Optical: NASA/STScI, ESO/VLT, SDSS

(PhysOrg.com) -- Two teams of astronomers have used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes to map the distribution of dark matter in a galaxy cluster known as Abell 383, which is located about 2.3 billion light years from Earth. Not only were the researchers able to find where the dark matter lies in the two dimensions across the sky, they were also able to determine how the dark matter is distributed along the line of sight.

Dark matter is invisible material that does not emit or absorb any type of light, but is detectable through its . Several lines of evidence indicate that there is about six times as much dark matter as "normal", or baryonic, matter in the Universe. Understanding the nature of this mysterious matter is one of the outstanding problems in astrophysics.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally-bound structures in the universe, and play an important role in research on dark matter and cosmology, the study of the structure and evolution of the universe. The use of clusters as dark matter and cosmological probes hinges on scientists' ability to use objects such as Abell 383 to accurately determine the and masses of clusters.

The recent work on Abell 383 provides one of the most detailed 3-D pictures yet taken of dark matter in a . Both teams have found that the dark matter is stretched out like a gigantic football, rather than being spherical like a basketball, and that the point of the football is aligned close to the line of sight.

The X-ray data (purple) from Chandra in the show the hot gas, which is by far the dominant type of normal matter in the cluster. Galaxies are shown with the optical data from the (HST), the Very Large Telescope, and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, colored in blue and white.

Both teams combined the X-ray observations of the "normal matter" in the cluster with gravitational lensing information determined from optical data. Gravitational lensing – an effect predicted by Albert Einstein – causes the material in the galaxy cluster, both normal and dark matter, to bend and distort the optical light from background galaxies. The distortion is severe in some parts of the image, producing an arc-like appearance for some of the galaxies. In other parts of the image the distortion is subtle and statistical analysis is used to study the distortion effects and probe the dark matter.

A considerable amount of effort has gone into studying the center of galaxy clusters, where the dark matter has the highest concentration and important clues about its behavior might be revealed. Both of the Abell 383 studies reported here continue that effort.

The team of Andrea Morandi from Tel Aviv University in Israel and Marceau Limousin from Université de Provence in France and University of Copenhagen in Denmark concluded that the increased concentration of the dark matter toward the center of the cluster is in agreement with most theoretical simulations. Their lensing data came from HST images.

The team led by Andrew Newman of the California Institute of Technology and Tommaso Treu of University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) used lensing data from HST and the Japanese telescope Subaru, but added Keck observations to measure the velocities of stars in the galaxy in the center of the cluster, allowing for a direct estimate of the amount of matter there. They found evidence that the amount of dark matter is not peaked as dramatically toward the center as the standard cold dark matter model predicts. Their paper describes this as being the "most robust case yet" made for such a discrepancy with theory.

The contrasting conclusions reached by the two teams most likely stem from differences in the data sets and the detailed mathematical modeling used. One important difference is that because the Newman et al. team used velocity information in the central galaxy, they were able to estimate the density of dark matter at distances that approached as close as only 6,500 light years from the center of the cluster. Morandi and Limousin did not use velocity data and their density estimates were unable to approach as close to the cluster's center, reaching to within 80,000 light years.

Another important difference is that Morandi and Limousin used a more detailed model for the 3-D map of dark matter in the cluster. For example, they were able to estimate the orientation of the dark matter "football" in space and show that it is mostly edge-on, although slightly tilted with respect to the line of sight.

As is often the case with cutting-edge and complex results, further work will be needed to resolve the discrepancy between the two teams. In view of the importance of resolving the dark matter mystery, there will undoubtedly be much more research into Abell 383 and other objects like it in the months and years to come.

If the relative lack of dark matter in the center of Abell 383 is confirmed, it may show that improvements need to be made in our understanding of how normal matter behaves in the center of galaxy clusters, or it may show that particles can interact with each other, contrary to the prevailing model.

The Newman et al. paper was published in the February 20, 2011 issue of the Astrophysical Journal Letters and the Morandi and Limousin paper has been accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Other members of the Newman et al. team were Richard Ellis from Caltech, and David Sand from Las Cumbres Global Telescope Network and UCSB.

Explore further: Fermi finds a 'transformer' pulsar

More information: Newman,A. et al. 2011 ApJ 728:L39; arXiv:1101.3553; Morandi, A., Limousin, M. 2011 MNRAS (in press); arXiv:1108.0769

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Tuxford
1.3 / 5 (12) Mar 14, 2012
That dark matter is largely absent toward the center of the cluster of matter, is consistent with my prediction of March 3rd, where I said:

'I predict that it will be shown that most/all galaxies will be shown to have lost their dark matter. In the presence of matter, the dark matter conversion to matter is enhanced. That is, dark matter is the precondition to the formation of matter. Dark matter halos and tenuous gas clouds will likely be shown to surround all galaxies. But within galaxies, the matter will dominate.'

http://www.physor...ion.html

This football shape is also consistent with this prediction, given that tenuous gas clouds are now thought to surround most galaxies, and I believe are linked to the dark matter precondition. The football will likely be observed surrounding most galactic clusters. Simply a matter of observational geometry.

See LaViolette's 'Subquantum Kinectics', should you wish to understand more.
TimESimmons
1 / 5 (5) Mar 14, 2012
They found evidence that the amount of dark matter is not peaked as dramatically toward the center as the standard cold dark matter model predicts

Here's why dark matter density does not appear to peak sharply:-
http://www.presto...ndex.htm
jsdarkdestruction
3.7 / 5 (9) Mar 14, 2012
Tuxford, why not mention how laviolette came up with this theory.....he says he found a coded message in the stars left warning us of an galactic superwave disaster in 2012 that also told him about how new matter is created from nothing. You always seem to forget that part.
RitchieGuy
1 / 5 (10) Mar 14, 2012
Tuxford, why not mention how laviolette came up with this theory.....he says he found a coded message in the stars left warning us of an galactic superwave disaster in 2012 that also told him about how new matter is created from nothing. You always seem to forget that part.


Hmm. . .all the more reason to watch the skies and keep a sharp eye out for any strange goings-on. Heck, you never know in this Universe until the right kind of instruments are developed for such observation. :)
BTW, did he leave a record of that code?
RitchieGuy
1.7 / 5 (11) Mar 14, 2012
Some background info on Dr. Paul Laviolette. Very interesting stuff.

http://www.etheri...tte.html
jsdarkdestruction
1.8 / 5 (5) Mar 14, 2012
http://www.etheri...alk.html
heres where he explains his messages in the stars idea. Pulsars are not neutron stars, they are et beacons of warning and secret knowledge of how the universe works.
Tuxford
1.7 / 5 (11) Mar 15, 2012
Not all pulsars are beacons, and this idea has now been picked up by other scientists, being labeled 'Benford Beacons.' But apparently Paul was the first to note that pulsars often did not fit his cosmology model, whereas most everything else did fit. So he was forced to examine the pulsar discrepancy in detail.

Most informed people around the world, outside the controlled media of the U.S., now consider UFO's as a genuine phenomenon. The same was true in the 1950's in the U.S. But the U.S. population has since suffered government disinformation, which started with Blue Book. Check some old UFO documentaries from the '50's, if you don't believe this.

So if you want the details, rather than Dark's mocking propaganda, check LaViolette's forum.

http://starburstf...ti2blog/

Dark seems to know too much about Paul's work. Why? Is he another paid agent?
jsdarkdestruction
3 / 5 (4) Mar 15, 2012
so since i actually read about his theory and pointed out how absurd it is i know too much? why? because you cant refute the utter crankness of the science he relies on and i point it out?
ufos? get real. i believed in those when i was 12. you shouldnt bring up such nonsense and say it helps laviolette look better. it just makes you and him look worse.
RitchieGuy
1.8 / 5 (10) Mar 15, 2012
The problem with that stuff is that not enough people have seen genuine UFOs and due to their lack of experience, they are quick to decide that a person's own experience with sighting and/or interacting with a UFO has to mean that the person experiencing it is not completely sane. I think that the skepticism involved with those inexperienced is something similar to a protective insulation for their mind to make sure that the inexperienced person himself has developed an immunity toward that which he believes to be imagination or some psychosis.
They tend to form an opinion immediately on hearing about a sighting which provides them with a feeling of superiority over the one whose sighting or encounter they consider too incredible to be true.
RitchieGuy
1.8 / 5 (10) Mar 15, 2012
To the inexperienced, the person or persons who have seen a genuine extraterrestrial UFO is considered "not one of us", even if in the same family. There is a "fear" involved also that the experience was true, and that would involve a rather radical deviation from the realm of what is considered "reality". which the inexperienced wish to avoid at all costs. Thus, all who are inexperienced in UFO sightings or encounters are proclaimed as somehow mistaken in what they saw, or have gone daft as an explanation for something that others have not also experienced
RitchieGuy
1.9 / 5 (9) Mar 15, 2012
To Jsdark. . .I would suggest that you be cautious in your dismissal of UFOs. YOU may never have seen any but it doesn't mean they are not here. We are not talking about a mysterious god or goddess who is invisible. UFOs have been seen. I say that from experience and I understand the fright and indignation of those who would prefer that such things don't exist, as it is an interruption of the reality that they hold dear.
RitchieGuy
2.2 / 5 (10) Mar 15, 2012
(edited)
""Thus, all who are inexperienced in UFO sightings or encounters are proclaimed as somehow mistaken in what they saw, or have gone daft as an explanation for something that others have not also experienced""

should be

Thus, all who are EXPERIENCED in UFO sightings or encounters are proclaimed as somehow mistaken in what they saw, or have gone daft as an explanation for something that others have not also experienced

(typo)
RitchieGuy
1.9 / 5 (9) Mar 15, 2012
OK. . .I myself am guilty of denying Dr Paul Laviolette a chance to convince me, but as soon as I read the word "ASTROLOGY", I immediately thought of gypsy fortunetellers and other charlatans who obtain their wealth from the gullible. There too, I am not experienced in seeing the results of his work and therefore, I have no logical reason to doubt him until, and unless I have more information. I have never seen dark matter, but I have no reason to disbelieve in its existence.
stellar-demolitionist
4 / 5 (4) Mar 15, 2012


http://www.etheri...tte.html

http://www.etheri...alk.html


Thanks for those links Richie, jsdark.

So that's who Laviolette is!

A few years back at an AAS meeting there was a contributed talk at the end of a session on specially placed pulsars sending us messages. We were all just wondering what that nonsense was doing at a scientific meeting. That was clearly LaViolette giving that talk.

But at least he comes up with his own ideas (like the no longer present omr) while the rest who post here are nothing more than copyists and followers.
jsdarkdestruction
3 / 5 (6) Mar 15, 2012
ritchyguy, What precisely makes you think ive never considered the possibility? what makes you think i didnt watch and read anything i could about suppossed abductions and ufo sightings and crashes multipe times when i was younger? I was obsessed with it. Do you believe in werewolves? some kids in wisconsin took a lie detector test and passed when tell of how they say 3 half wolf half men drank from a stream in front of them and passsed. do you believe them? people have reported things like that for centuries with no basis, all kinds of supposed monsters and angels and the like were. ufo's are just a next level of people wanting to believe in something beyond themselves so they see and hear and imagine what they want so they feel they have a better understanding than others and sometimes just plain human fear is preyed upon and people get so scared they see and/or hear something not real. ive come to my beliefs after years of researching.
CardacianNeverid
2.9 / 5 (11) Mar 15, 2012
ritchyguy, What precisely makes you think ive never considered the possibility? what makes you think i didnt watch and read anything i could about suppossed abductions and ufo sightings and crashes multipe times when i was younger? -jsdark

Remember whom you're talking to: Mr. RitchieGuy Pirouette Xbw NamVet666 Paoloilpotentata Pfennigfuchser Minstrel_Cycle XXian_Juggernaut Skulltch, et al

Apart from his multiple personality disorder he also believes in transparent Martian cattle and has a potty mouth to make a drunken sailor blush!

Tuxford
1.4 / 5 (10) Mar 15, 2012
A cult intervention takes time. One must recognize how your own irrationally rational mind has been manipulated all your life. Focusing on how your idea of your world does not match the actual world is a good first step. Most will resist this step as they have grown comfortable with their precious ideas which give them comfort facing an uncertain reality. I too had to go through this recognition.

Just a few short years ago, I too was an acceptor of the Big Bang Fantasy (BBF). It took time to re-examine my own conclusions in light of the evidence, which is more widespread than simply cosmology. Take a wider view, as LaViolette had done. Examine the evidence, and re-evaluate your unwitting membership.

Dark's egomanical narrow insistence on being right has left him ripe for mental manipulation, hiding in his Dark Intellectual Closet. His repeated condemnations belong in a Baptist church.
Xbw
3.4 / 5 (18) Mar 15, 2012

Remember whom you're talking to: Mr. RitchieGuy Pirouette Xbw NamVet666 Paoloilpotentata Pfennigfuchser Minstrel_Cycle XXian_Juggernaut Skulltch, et al

Apart from his multiple personality disorder he also believes in transparent Martian cattle and has a potty mouth to make a drunken sailor blush!



Oh ok now it makes sense why you keep voting all my posts down. You must be Otto. Still think I am richie? I think you are schizophrenic and incredibly paranoid. I think you are afraid to admit that more than one person disagrees with your skewed view of the world. Believe it or not, there are quite a few people on this site who disagree with you and downright dislike you. They are just more civilized and don't bother to waste time sifting through all your posts to downrate them.

We prefer debate. Not hate.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1.2 / 5 (18) Mar 15, 2012
Oh ok now it makes sense why you keep voting all my posts down. You must be Otto.
No I am otto. As I recall you tend to post religionist tripe which requires voting down.
ritchyguy, What precisely makes you think ive never considered the possibility? what makes you think i didnt watch and read anything i could about suppossed abductions and ufo sightings and crashes multipe times when i was younger? I was obsessed with it. Do you believe in werewolves?
Ritchie thinks that anything that occurs to him/her is reality and also worth posting, including ufos (but not ASTROLOGY). Ritchie thinks that solar panels on vehicle roofs was HIS idea. Ritchie thinks that he and his farmer buddies will be growing sweet sorghum this year, processing it in nonexistent distilleries and refineries, and storing it in their co-op. Without approval. What else you got ritchie?
We prefer debate. Not hate.
We REQUIRE facts not posturing bullshit. Nonsense WILL be disproved and posters shamed.
Xbw
3.3 / 5 (14) Mar 15, 2012
Ghost when have I ever posted anything "religionist"?

TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (16) Mar 15, 2012
Ghost when have I ever posted anything "religionist"?

Youre right you are indeed Mr. RitchieGuy Pirouette Xbw NamVet666 Paoloilpotentata Pfennigfuchser Minstrel_Cycle XXian_Juggernaut Skulltch, et al. Or one or more of these are your girlfriend or an inlaw or 2.

Sorry for the mixup.
Xbw
3.6 / 5 (17) Mar 15, 2012
Answer me this. When have you ever submitted an opinion opposite of anyone in which you didn't try to completely thrash their character or attack them?

Vigilantes like you are what bring down the IQ of everyone else on this site.

Some of us prefer to debate the facts intelligently and without assassinating the character of others. You are the worst kind of person and I can only assume you are like this in real life.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (15) Mar 15, 2012
Answer me this. When have you ever submitted an opinion opposite of anyone in which you didn't try to completely thrash their character or attack them...Some of us prefer to debate the facts intelligently and without assassinating the character of others. You are the worst kind of person and I can only assume you are like this in real life.
Answer me this Ritchie. Should we continue to let you post lies and nonsense without correction? Impressionable people might get the idea you know what you are talking about when it is easy to show that you don't.

Like how solar panels on roofs is not an original idea, how alternative energy IS mature enough supply significant percentages of power here and in Europe, how wax molds cannot be used to cast metal objects, and how it is impossible for you to be growing sweet sorghum for conversion to ethanol for your many tractors and combines because the tech hasn't been developed yet.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (14) Mar 15, 2012
Vigilantes like you are what bring down the IQ of everyone else on this site.
Correcting outrageous bullshitters like yourself is the only conscientious thing to do. I feel it is my duty, and I will continue to do it.

Accurate info can only help to improve the knowledge base of participants, including the knowledge of how to recognize outrageous bullshitters like yourself. In this respect your continuous bullshit serves as a valuable example.
RitchieGuy
1 / 5 (5) Mar 15, 2012
jsdark says:
ritchyguy, What precisely makes you think ive never considered the possibility? what makes you think i didnt watch and read anything i could about suppossed abductions and ufo sightings and crashes multipe times when i was younger? I was obsessed with it. Do you believe in werewolves? some kids in wisconsin took a lie detector test and passed when tell of how they say 3 half wolf half men drank from a stream in front of them and passsed. do you believe them? people have reported things like that for centuries with no basis, all kinds of supposed monsters and angels and the like were. ufo's are just a next level of people wanting to believe in something beyond themselves so they see and hear and imagine what they want so they feel they have a better understanding than others and sometimes just plain human fear is preyed upon and people get so scared they see and/or hear something not real. ive come to my beliefs after years of researching.


incorrect, jsdark
RitchieGuy
1.5 / 5 (8) Mar 15, 2012
@jsdark. . .I was not referring to you, but only people in general. I don't know you or anything about you, therefore I am not going to subject you to any supposition on my part. It is true that probably a great majority of those who believe themselves to be intelligent will refer to those who have seen something anomalous as part of the kook fringe and it has happened to entirely credible people in the past, including astronauts and airline pilots. For anyone to say that these sightings haven't actually happened and is someone's imagination is a rejection also of theoretical physics, since nobody has ever actually SEEN the objects that scientists theorize exist. If you say that you have seen Bigfoot, I am certainly not going to say that it's all in your mind, since you may very well have seen it. It's not for me to judge what you have seen or not seen, simply because I don't know. I wasn't there with you.
RitchieGuy
1 / 5 (6) Mar 15, 2012
Vanditardo/Neverid says:
ritchyguy, What precisely makes you think ive never considered the possibility? what makes you think i didnt watch and read anything i could about suppossed abductions and ufo sightings and crashes multipe times when i was younger? -jsdark

Remember whom you're talking to: Mr. RitchieGuy Pirouette Xbw NamVet666 Paoloilpotentata Pfennigfuchser Minstrel_Cycle XXian_Juggernaut Skulltch, et al

Apart from his multiple personality disorder he also believes in transparent Martian cattle and has a potty mouth to make a drunken sailor blush!



Wow. . .I never saw any Martian cattle. . .Venditard has seen Martian cattle. . .now THAT is incredible.
Venditardo. . .it looks like you've been taking too many drags on your AGW crackpipe and your imagination is running wild. LOL
Next thing you'll be believing your fellow retard GhostofShitto that I'm Xbw, Callippo, Omatumr, Noumenon, Namvet and a host of other people.
RitchieGuy
1 / 5 (5) Mar 15, 2012
Oh that's right. . .you do already. Have you considered the possibility that you are, and have been, manipulated by GhostofShitto and his buttbuddy, FrankHerbert aka brewertow aka his many other sockpuppets? Seems like you are very easy to manipulate into believing that I have other names. Perhaps you also believe that everything you post is like gold and that nobody will ever take exception to what you say. . .because you are somehow right all the time. Haven't you wondered yet why GhostofShitto is obsessed with me? He/she has a god complex and you can read about his god complex in his/her profile. GhostofShitto's mental processes are faulty and too far gone, as evidenced by his/her idiotic statements. . .further proof of a mental midget who is obviously hallucinating. . . .as well as being fascinated with me.
CardacianNeverid
3.2 / 5 (9) Mar 16, 2012
it looks like you've been taking too many drags on your AGW crackpipe -PirouetteTard

Sorry, unlike you, I eschew practices that retard the mind.

Next thing you'll be believing your fellow retard GhostofShitto that I'm Xbw, Callippo, Omatumr, Noumenon, Namvet and a host of other people. -PirouetteTard

Simple minded attempt at deflection.

You are certainly (100%) Xbw, an alias attempting to sound reasonable with cutesy comments littered with smilies, but generally devoid of any real substance or insight. While the vile NamVet666 is closer to your true persona (Pirouette, RitchieGuy). The other aliases are silent and are routinely used to up-rank yourself.

And you are certainly not Callippo/Zephyr, a well known crank of long standing (like Omatumr) but who is never abusive, nor are you Noumenon, who is far more educated and exhibits rational thinking when it comes to scientific topics.

What a loser.

Xbw
3.5 / 5 (16) Mar 16, 2012
Ritchie and I have had our disagreements and don't always see eye to eye on everything. To say I'm him is retarded. I used to lurk around this site for years reading the articles. Finally I decided to make an account to discuss topics and within moments I am pinned as a "sockpuppet" and told I am someone I am not.

I don't think we even live in the same state in fact.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1.2 / 5 (17) Mar 16, 2012
Hey Ritchie you have STILL to address this apparent bull$hit:

As I've said before, I will be planting sweet sorghum soon, and the resulting sugars will be fermented into ethanol...to store the ethanol locally and each one take out only as much as was put in.
-To which I aptly replied:
Funny. U of Arizona is only just now working on a pilot plant project for sweet sorghum. They've grown 40 acres (coincidence?) but couldn't manage the logistics for even this test project because the intermediate support is not yet available.
http://obpreview2...t%20.pdf
So whats the story ritchie? You really must dispel the suspicion that you pulled this out of what I must assume is a very AMPLE ass of yours.
Time is running out to clear your good name. OOp too late.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1.5 / 5 (17) Mar 16, 2012
Ritchie and I have had our disagreements and don't always see eye to eye on everything. To say I'm him is retarded. I used to lurk around this site for years reading the articles. Finally I decided to make an account to discuss topics and within moments I am pinned as a "sockpuppet" and told I am someone I am not.

I don't think we even live in the same state in fact.
Right. That's why you joined 3 months ago in order to uprate Ritchieguy Pirouette NamVet666 Paoloilpotentata Pfennigfuchser Minstrel_Cycle XXian_Juggernaut Skulltch, et al.

I assume you are all part of the extended inbred ozarkian ufo cult family. As I say your bull$hit will be exposed. Constantly. Endlessly.
incorrect, jsdark
Hey Ritchie you have been reported for pointless verbiage. Which covers pretty much everything you post.
TheGhostofOtto1923
1 / 5 (15) Mar 16, 2012
Wow. . .I never saw any Martian cattle. . .
By the way ritchie/pirouette how do you know that those glassy-headed aliens laying down in the martian dust (you thought they were standing up but as someone pointed out, you didnt understand the camera angle - remember?) werent in fact cattle?

Its quite possible that martian cattle are very different from earthly cattle and we shouldnt be so quick to apply earthly preconceptions to extra-earthly delusions and hallucinations I think.

Did you consider these things? Huh ritchie/pirouette?