Nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable sodium-Ion batteries

February 13, 2012
Nanostructured electrodes for rechargeable sodium-Ion batteries
The electrostatic attraction of electrochemically altered V2O5 layers provides a strong driving force for Na+.

Highly efficient 3V cathodes for rechargeable sodium-ion batteries have been developed by users from Argonne National Laboratory's Materials Science, Chemical Sciences & Engineering, and X-ray Sciences Divisions, as well as the University of Chicago, together with the Center for Nanoscale Materials NanoBio Interfaces Group. With a near-theoretical capacity of 250 mAh/g, excellent rate capability and cycle life, and high energy and power densities of 760 Wh/kg and 1200 W/kg, respectively, these bilayered V2O5 systems can be used in applications at ambient temperature.

Rechargeable systems with transport ions other than lithium offer an alternative to lithium-ion batteries that would substantially expand the existing energy storage market, which is primarily based on lithium-ion technology. Sodium-based batteries are particularly attractive: Sodium is a cheap, nontoxic, and abundant element that is uniformly distributed around the world and therefore would be ideal as a transport ion for rechargeable batteries.

This research team's approach to achieving sodium ion intercalation was to use nanoscale materials that have two-dimensional layered structures with adjustable interlayer spacings capable of accommodating large volume changes. Ex situ and in situ synchrotron characterization studies revealed that sodium ion uptake induces organization of the overall vanadia structure together with appearance of long-range order between the layers. Upon deintercalation of sodium, the long-range order is lost while the intralayer structure is still preserved. Inducing ordering of nanomaterials in operando has thus allowed the realization of the highest possible electrode capacity by optimizing the balance of electrostatic forces. Improved elasticity and exceptional long-term stability of this open framework structure makes bilayered V2O5 a suitable cathode material for high-energy density rechargeable batteries.

Explore further: Crystal clues to better batteries

More information: S. Tepavcevic et al., “Nanostructured Bilayered Vanadium Oxide Electrodes for Rechargeable Sodium-Ion Batteries," ACS Nano, 6, 530 (2012).

Related Stories

Crystal clues to better batteries

February 19, 2007

Longer-lasting laptop and mobile phone batteries could be a step closer thanks to research by scientists at the University of Oxford.

Fluoride shuttle increases storage capacity

October 21, 2011

German researchers have developed a new concept for rechargeable batteries. Based on a fluoride shuttle -- the transfer of fluoride anions between the electrodes -- it promises to enhance the storage capacity reached by lithium-ion ...

Recommended for you

Personal cooling units on the horizon

April 28, 2016

Firefighters entering burning buildings, athletes competing in the broiling sun and workers in foundries may eventually be able to carry their own, lightweight cooling units with them, thanks to a nanowire array that cools, ...

Cooling graphene-based film close to pilot-scale production

April 29, 2016

Heat dissipation in electronics and optoelectronics is a severe bottleneck in the further development of systems in these fields. To come to grips with this serious issue, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology ...

Exploring phosphorene, a promising new material

April 28, 2016

Two-dimensional phosphane, a material known as phosphorene, has potential application as a material for semiconducting transistors in ever faster and more powerful computers. But there's a hitch. Many of the useful properties ...

Researchers create one-step graphene patterning method

April 27, 2016

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a one-step, facile method to pattern graphene by using stencil mask and oxygen plasma reactive-ion etching, and subsequent polymer-free direct ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.