Why humans choose running over walking

Jan 05, 2012

Other than Olympic race walkers, people generally find it more comfortable to run than walk when they start moving at around 2 meters per second – about 4.5 miles per hour.

North Carolina State University biomedical engineers Dr. Gregory Sawicki and Dr. Dominic Farris have discovered why: At 2 meters per second, running makes better use of an important calf than , and therefore is a much more efficient use of the muscle's – and the body's – energy.

Published online this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the results stem from a first-of-its-kind study combining ultrasound imaging, high-speed motion-capture techniques and a force-measuring treadmill to examine a key calf muscle and how it behaves when people walk and run.

The study used ultrasound imaging in a unique way: A small ultrasound probe fastened to the back of the leg showed in real time the adjustments made by the muscle as study subjects walked and ran at various speeds.

The high-speed images revealed that the medial gastrocnemius muscle, a major that attaches to the Achilles tendon, can be likened to a "clutch" that engages early in the stride, holding one end of the tendon while the body's energy is transferred to stretch it. Later, the Achilles – the long, elastic tendon that runs down the back of the lower leg – springs into action by releasing the stored energy in a rapid recoil to help move you.

The study showed that the muscle "speeds up," or changes its length more and more rapidly as people walk faster and faster, but in doing so provides less and less power. Working harder and providing less power means less overall muscle efficiency.

When people break into a run at about 2 meters per second, however, the study showed that the muscle "slows down," or changes its length more slowly, providing more power while working less rigorously, thereby increasing its efficiency.

"The technique allows you to separate out the movement of the muscles in the lower leg and has not been used before in this context," Farris says.

The finding sheds light on why speed walking is generally confined to the Olympics: muscles must work too inefficiently to speed walk, so the body turns to running in order to increase efficiency and comfort, and to conserve energy.

"The muscle can't catch up to the speed of the gait as you walk faster and faster," Sawicki says. "But when you shift the gait and transition from a walk to a run, that same muscle becomes almost static and doesn't seem to change its behavior very much as you run faster and faster, although we didn't test the muscle at sprinting rates."

The research could help inform the best ways of building assistive or prosthetic devices for humans, or help strength and conditioning professionals assist people who have had spinal-cord injury or a stroke, Sawicki and Farris say.

Explore further: Noted researchers warn that biomedical research system in US is unsustainable

More information: "Human medial gastrocnemius force-velocity behaviour shifts with locomotion speed and gait" Dominic James Farris and Gregory S. Sawicki, Online Jan. 4, 2012, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract
Humans walk and run over a wide range of speeds with remarkable efficiency. For steady locomotion, moving at different speeds requires the muscle-tendon units of the leg to modulate the amount of mechanical power the limb absorbs and outputs in each step. How individual muscles adapt their behaviour to modulate limb power output has been examined using computer simulation and animal models but has not been studied in vivo in humans. In this study we utilised a novel combination of ultrasound imaging and motion analysis to examine how medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle-tendon unit behaviour is adjusted to meet the varying mechanical demands of different locomotor speeds during walking and running in humans. The results highlighted key differences in MG fascicle shortening velocity with both locomotor speed and gait. Fascicle shortening velocity at the time of peak muscle force production increased with walking speed, impairing the ability of the muscle to produce high peak forces. Switching to a running gait at 2.0 m·s-1caused fascicle shortening at the time of peak force production to shift to much slower velocities. This velocity shift facilitated a large increase in peak muscle force and an increase in MG power output. MG fascicle velocity may be a key factor that limits the speeds humans choose to walk at and may explain the transition from walking to running. This finding is consistent with previous modeling studies.

Related Stories

The spring in your step is more than just a good mood

Apr 23, 2008

Scientists using a bionic boot found that during walking, the ankle does about three times the work for the same amount of energy compared to isolated muscles---in other words, the spring in your step is very real and helps ...

Why walking flat-footed hurts habitual high-heels wearers

Jul 15, 2010

Why does it hurt walking flat-footed after wearing high heels? Marco Narici and his team from Manchester Metropolitan University looked at the calf muscles of habitual high heel wearers and found that the women's muscle fibers ...

Robotic exoskeleton replaces muscle work

Feb 08, 2007

A robotic exoskeleton controlled by the wearer's own nervous system could help users regain limb function, which is encouraging news for people with partial nervous system impairment, say University of Michigan researchers.

Peripheral artery disease harder on women

Feb 04, 2011

Small calf muscles may be a feminine trait, but for women with peripheral artery disease (PAD) they're a major disadvantage. Researchers at Northwestern Medicine point to the smaller calf muscles of women as a gender difference ...

Recommended for you

Plants with dormant seeds give rise to more species

11 hours ago

Seeds that sprout as soon as they're planted may be good news for a garden. But wild plants need to be more careful. In the wild, a plant whose seeds sprouted at the first warm spell or rainy day would risk disaster. More ...

Researchers successfully clone adult human stem cells

14 hours ago

(Phys.org) —An international team of researchers, led by Robert Lanza, of Advanced Cell Technology, has announced that they have performed the first successful cloning of adult human skin cells into stem ...

User comments : 7

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

Xbw
1.8 / 5 (11) Jan 05, 2012
There is a simple explanation here. Running looks much more manly than power walking.
Burnerjack
3 / 5 (3) Jan 05, 2012
It would seem, based on efficiency, that walking would be more beneficial for weight loss as well as less impact on joints. But yeah, not so manly looking.
krundoloss
2.4 / 5 (5) Jan 05, 2012
Running is more efficient. Yet Fat people refuse to run. Maybe thats why they are fat. I always tell people, if you want to lose weight, just run for 15 - 30 mins every day.
tadchem
4.2 / 5 (5) Jan 05, 2012
Look at the physics. The leg has a natural period based on it's length. The stride has a natural distance based on the length of the leg and the angle at which it is swung forward.
Speed = Stride / Period.
To exceed this speed one must either decrease the period, increase the stride, or both.
The natural way to increase the stride is to raise the back foot off the ground BEFORE the leading foot strikes the ground, allowing some travel while not in contact with the ground - called 'running'. This was proven for horses by Muybridge in 1878.
dschlink
5 / 5 (1) Jan 05, 2012
Since running is more efficient, it wouldn't be a better way to lose weight, K. Walking quickly burns more energy and has far less impact on the joints than running.
dogbert
2 / 5 (8) Jan 05, 2012
krundoloss,
Running is more efficient. Yet Fat people refuse to run. Maybe thats why they are fat. I always tell people, if you want to lose weight, just run for 15 - 30 mins every day.


I think that may be due more to an inability than to a refusal. Obese people often have difficulty walking, much less running.

Neither walking nor running insures weight loss, at least not 15 to 30 minutes per day.
MarkyMark
not rated yet Jan 28, 2012
krundoloss,
Running is more efficient. Yet Fat people refuse to run. Maybe thats why they are fat. I always tell people, if you want to lose weight, just run for 15 - 30 mins every day.


I think that may be due more to an inability than to a refusal. Obese people often have difficulty walking, much less running.

Neither walking nor running insures weight loss, at least not 15 to 30 minutes per day.

Also include certain medications such as PD bags used in Peroteneil Dialysis ( sorry cant remember the spelling and in a rush). Typicall patients gain like 500 - 1000 Calories overnight while sleeping!!!

Also Diabetics who take certain types of insulin.

More news stories

Researchers successfully clone adult human stem cells

(Phys.org) —An international team of researchers, led by Robert Lanza, of Advanced Cell Technology, has announced that they have performed the first successful cloning of adult human skin cells into stem ...

Male monkey filmed caring for dying mate (w/ Video)

(Phys.org) —The incident was captured by Dr Bruna Bezerra and colleagues in the Atlantic Forest in the Northeast of Brazil.  Dr Bezerra is a Research Associate at the University of Bristol and a Professor ...

Researchers develop new model of cellular movement

(Phys.org) —Cell movement plays an important role in a host of biological functions from embryonic development to repairing wounded tissue. It also enables cancer cells to break free from their sites of ...

Impact glass stores biodata for millions of years

(Phys.org) —Bits of plant life encapsulated in molten glass by asteroid and comet impacts millions of years ago give geologists information about climate and life forms on the ancient Earth. Scientists ...