How supermassive black holes came into existence shortly after the Big Bang

Dec 12, 2011
Pictured is the large scale cosmological mass distribution in the the MassiveBlack simulation. The projected gas density over the whole volume ("unwrapped" into 2-D) is shown in the background image. The two images on top show two close-ups of the regions where the most massive black hole is formed. The black hole is at the center of the image and is being fed by cold gas streams. Credit: Yu Feng

(PhysOrg.com) -- Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University's Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology have discovered what caused the rapid growth of early supermassive black holes — a steady diet of cold, fast food.

Computer simulations, completed using supercomputers at the National Institute for Computational Sciences and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center, and viewed using CMU's GigaPan technology, show that thin streams of cold gas flow uncontrolled into the center of the first black holes, causing them to grow faster than anything else in the universe. The findings will be published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

In the early days of the universe, a mere 700 to 800 million years after the Big Bang, most things were small. The first stars and galaxies were just beginning to form and grow in isolated parts of the universe. According to astrophysical theory, black holes found during this era also should be small in proportion with the galaxies in which they reside. However, recent observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) have shown that this isn't the case — enormous existed as early as 700 million years after the Big Bang.

"The Sloan Digital Sky Survey found supermassive black holes at less than 1 billion years. They were the same size as today's most massive black holes, which are 13.6 billion years old," said Tiziana Di Matteo, associate professor of physics at Carnegie Mellon. "It was a puzzle. Why do some black holes form so early when it takes the whole age of the universe for others to reach the same mass?"

Supermassive black holes are the largest black holes, with masses billions of times larger than that of the sun. Typical black holes have masses only up to 30 times larger than the sun's. Astrophysicists have determined that supermassive black holes can form when two galaxies collide and their two black holes merge into one. These galaxy collisions happened in the later years of the universe, but not in the early days. In the first few millions of years after the Big Bang, galaxies were too few and too far apart to merge.

"If you write the equations for how galaxies and black holes form, it doesn't seem possible that these huge masses could form that early," said Rupert Croft, an associate professor of physics at Carnegie Mellon. "But we look to the sky and there they are."

To find out exactly how these supermassive black holes came to be, Di Matteo, Croft and Carnegie Mellon post-doctoral researcher Nishikanta Khandai created the largest cosmological simulation to date. Called MassiveBlack, the simulation focused on recreating the first billion years after the Big Bang.

"This simulation is truly gigantic. It's the largest in terms of the level of physics and the actual volume. We did that because we were interested in looking at rare things in the universe, like the first black holes. Because they are so rare, you need to search over a large volume of space," Di Matteo said.

They began by running the simulation under conditions set under the standard model of — the accepted theories and laws of modern day physics governing the formation and growth of the universe.

"We didn't put anything crazy in. There's no magic physics, no extra stuff. It's the same physics that forms galaxies in simulations of the later universe," Croft said. "But magically, these early quasars, just as had been observed, appear. We didn't know they were going to show up. It was amazing to measure their masses and go 'Wow! These are the exact right size and show up exactly at the right point in time.' It's a success story for the modern theory of cosmology."

Their simulation data was incorporated into a new technology developed by Carnegie Mellon computer scientists called GigaPan Time Machine. The technology allowed the researchers to view their simulation as if it was a video with extremely high resolution. This enabled them to easily pan across the simulated universe as it formed and move back and forth through time as necessary. They could then zoom in on events that looked interesting, viewing them in greater detail than could be seen using a telescope.

As they zoomed in to the creation of the first supermassive black holes, they saw something unexpected. Normally, when cold gas flows toward a black hole it collides with other gas in the surrounding galaxy. This causes the cold gas to heat up and then cool back down before it enters the black hole. This process, called shock heating, would stop black holes in the early universe from growing fast enough to reach the masses we see. Instead, Di Matteo and Croft saw in their simulation thin streams of cold dense gas flowing along the filaments that give structure to the universe and straight into the center of the black holes at breakneck speed, making for cold, fast food for the black holes. This uncontrolled consumption caused the to grow exponentially faster than the galaxies in which they reside.

And since a galaxy forms when a black hole forms, the results could also shed light on how the first galaxies formed, giving more clues to how the came to be. Di Matteo and Croft hope to push the limits of their simulation a bit more, creating even bigger simulations that cover more space and time.

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jsdarkdestruction
1.8 / 5 (5) Dec 12, 2011
interesting.honestly im not that convinced though. it helps our understanding but imo its far from settling it.
jsa09
1.3 / 5 (3) Dec 12, 2011
It is interesting that the streams of cold matter flowing through other gasses looks just like streams of plasma flowing along electrical field lines.

Perhaps there is a lot more in common between plasma and cold uncharged matter.

I mean that charged particles acting under the influence of magnetic or electrical influence may be exactly the same as neutral particles acting under the influence of gravity.

The only problem I have with the similarity is that magnetic fields and electric fields have right angle field lines to maintain the track. How does gravity simulate that.
TimESimmons
1 / 5 (10) Dec 12, 2011
It's a success story for the modern theory of cosmology

But still no spiral galaxies I see.
http://www.presto...ndex.htm

Callippo
1 / 5 (15) Dec 12, 2011
This explanation isn't completely wrong and it has even some relevance to dense aether model of AWT. It doesn't imply the Big Bang process though - instead of this, the AWT considers, this process still occurs all around us: the large galaxies are evaporating into radiation and neutrinos (solitons of transverse and longitudinal waves), which are condensing somewhere else. The net radiation effect leads into flux of dark matter into galaxies in similar way, like the condensation of gas or freezing of fluid from many sources.

http://www.aether...sity.gif
http://www.aether...aac1.gif
http://www.aether...apse.gif
Callippo
1.3 / 5 (16) Dec 12, 2011
Some theories consider, the observable Universe is formed with interior of black hole, the material of which is forming the vacuum. Note that this insight is compliant with dense aether model, in which the vacuum is formed with dense particle matter too. When we admit such a model, we may ask, how such black hole is formed? You can imagine it like condensation of collapsar, during which the areas of more dense vacuum are gradually growing until they collide in shock waves. This cosmology in somewhat different form was proposed with J. Smoller and B. Temple [PNAS, 2002] http://www.pnas.o...full.pdf
In general, I don't believe the Universe as a whole is formed with black hole, but at smaller distance scales the behavior of dark matter can be really modeled with processes inside of collapsing stars and we can even get some testable predictions from it. At the general scale all models will vanish mutually into one random mixture, no matter, how pretty may appear.
Callippo
1.3 / 5 (14) Dec 12, 2011
It is interesting that the streams of cold matter flowing through other gasses looks just like streams of plasma flowing along electrical field lines.
I'm sure, the proponents of Plasma Universe already recognized the similarity of their plasma flux with the above model. It doesn't mean, the Universe can be completely described with plasma dynamics, but because the substantial portion of dark matter and interstellar gas is formed with charged or ionized particles, some aspects of plasma behavior may be applied to this part of Universe too. For example in this simulation the fibers of dark matter are behaving like five-dimensional slime fluid, which are gradually coalescing into fibers, on which the galaxies are residing.

http://www.physor...795.html
http://www.aether...tter.jpg
It means, even the plasma model can bring some insights here, but these insights must be generalized with caution.
Callippo
1 / 5 (12) Dec 12, 2011
it helps our understanding but imo its far from settling it
This is very correct and rational approach - the behavior of Universe at large scale is nearly as complex, as the behavior of Universe at the human scale and dozens of theories and approaches could be applied to it. Each of these models can contribute to the final understanding of the whole picture, but none of these approaches can be applied universally. These theories are behaving like fibers of dark matter foam, which are composing the general picture together, but none of them is really dominant here.

I'm saying it because the laymans will face increasing number of observations and theories in future and therefore it's important to have some general guidelines for their judging. Or they will get lost in increasing amount of data.
Callippo
1 / 5 (12) Dec 12, 2011
The string theorists predicted the existence of so-called cosmic strings already before some time.
http://en.wikiped...c_string

IMO the dark matter fibers are actually just these cosmic strings. They appear a much more thicker and fuzzy, than the string theorists expect, because we are observing these hyperdimensional objects from our low dimensional perspective. This is just another example of phenomena, which string theorists predicted successfully, but they didn't recognize them in existing artifacts, because their theory is too schematic and difficult/complex enough to imagine in practical details. The ability to predict some phenomena is therefore one thing, the actual finding it is another one. If string theorists could balance the formal and nonformal aspects of their theory better, they would be a much more successful in promotion of their theory already.
Argiod
1 / 5 (12) Dec 12, 2011
I still say you cannot have a Big Bang and Black Holes in the same universe. If, as they say, a Black Hole's gravity is so strong that not even light (which is nearly massless) cannot escape, then imagine all that we can perceive crammed into an infinitesimal point in space. Now, think how strong the gravitational forces would be, and tell me how anything could have gone 'Bang!'??? Unless you break the most basic tenent of physics, you cannot get something from nothing. There could have been no beginning, beyond which nothing existed. If you postulate the Big Bang (Everything from Nothing) then you can do whatever you wish with physics, as there would be no consistancy in the 'laws'... since the universe as a whole would be breaking those laws in its own creation. This idea is an artifact from Christianity's obssession with misinterpreted Biblical passages.

Of course, this is just my opinion; I could be wrong.
Callippo
1 / 5 (13) Dec 12, 2011
This idea is an artifact from Christianity's obssession with misinterpreted Biblical passages.
And with concept of begging and end, as the limited human creatures cannot understand, something can be eternal and infinite.

But dense aether model is agnostic regarding the Steady state or Big bang models - it just says, all cosmological theories will converge into random model of Universe at the sufficiently distant perspective. One problem of both Steady state Universe, both Big Bang theory is, the observable Universe is not completely homogeneous because of Doppler shift of CMBR. This Doppler shift can be explained with insintric parity violation during observation of large random object with one of its fluctuations, but it may indicate too, even our portion of Universe isn't quite stable. For example famous astronomer Laura Mersini believes, our Universe appears like gigantic quantum wave, which travels from place to place and ignites galaxies there. Why not, after all.
Nanobanano
1 / 5 (13) Dec 12, 2011
Argiod:

You're actually half right anyway.

The truth is, the Big Bang theory does not work.

That's why they invented the patches of inflationary theory, and "symetry breaking" in which the laws of the universe truly mean nothing!

Haven't you ever heard of GUTS? Grand Unified Theory? The laws of physics change, according to the physicists anyway...

They admit this. I didn't make it up. It's always been that way.

But I digress, the hypocrissy of trying to "post-dict" an event that could only exist if the laws of physics are not constant...it's insanity.
Callippo
1 / 5 (11) Dec 12, 2011
BMW Laura is one of most photogenic scientists today (after Brian Greene, indeed...;-)), so you may enjoy the following video http://www.youtub...DWp2SVkU or this one, less dramatic one http://www.youtub...EARcV8ds (which is called "The Aether Of Time" symptomatically).
Caliban
1 / 5 (2) Dec 12, 2011

But I digress, the hypocrissy of trying to "post-dict" an event that could only exist if the laws of physics are not constant...it's insanity.[/g]

@NB, Argiod,

Not saying you are wrong, but given what we know about quantum behavior of matter/energy at the very small scale, what kind of foolishness would be required to predict that similar effects might not occur at VERY LARGE SCALES of matter/energy density?

Telekinetic
1 / 5 (9) Dec 12, 2011
"For example famous astronomer Laura Mersini believes, our Universe appears like gigantic quantum wave, which travels from place to place and ignites galaxies there. Why not, after all."-Callippo
Doesn't that sound like our universe "functions" in the multiverse as progenitor of galaxy formation? Meaning, rather than having no rhyme or reason to exist, our universe plays a part in some grand cosmic scheme , much more vast than we could have ever imagined, .
Callippo
1 / 5 (8) Dec 12, 2011
our universe plays a part in some grand cosmic scheme , much more vast than we could have ever imagined
IMO our universe is simply random, we just managed to move at the single place of it long time, so we are seeing this randomness from its most regular gradient driven perspective. http://www.aether...oise.gif
Telekinetic
1 / 5 (6) Dec 12, 2011
My sense is that the creation of a compound in a chemical reaction, for instance, requires the participation of a variety of elements and energy, but we wouldn't consider it a random action, it's the formula that produces that particular reaction. I see the multiverse as a huge cocktail of events involving multi-dimensions stirring universes together in chemical reactions within infinitely large beakers.
Ethelred
4.3 / 5 (18) Dec 13, 2011
So far the commercial spam has been the most useful and rational post.

Ethelred
omatumr
1 / 5 (15) Dec 13, 2011
The universe is infinite in time and space.

It is expanding now because of neutron emission and neutron decay.

When the neutron stars have evaporated away, it will collapse and start over.

References:

1. "Is the Universe Expanding?" The Journal of Cosmology 13, 4187-4190 (2011)

http://journalofc...102.html

2. "Neutron Repulsion", The APEIRON Journal, in press (2011)

http://arxiv.org/...2.1499v1

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
http://myprofile....anuelo09
MarkyMark
Dec 13, 2011
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
TimESimmons
1.7 / 5 (11) Dec 13, 2011
Marky, Since you understand the universe so well it must be easy for you to show me that I'm wrong. Could you have a go please?
http://www.presto...ndex.htm
Ethelred
4.1 / 5 (14) Dec 13, 2011
The universe is infinite in time and space.
The evidence is all to the contrary.

It is expanding now because of neutron emission and neutron decay.
There is no evidence to support that.

There is no evidence of N-N repulsion beyond the Pauli-Exclusion Principle. Interesting you evaded the latest article showing this.

http://www.physor...ons.html

Stayed right away from that one even after your name was mentioned. Evasion of reality is your real specialty.

When the neutron stars have evaporated away, it will collapse and start over.
No evidence to support that. Massive evidence that neutrons do not repel at more than nuclear ranges and there they attract via the strong force.

Ethelred
Benni
2.1 / 5 (11) Dec 13, 2011
So far the commercial spam has been the most useful and rational post.

Ethelred


So far no one has bothered to post spam of items for sale from their website. Come on you advertisers looking for free space, I'm a guy in sad need of a bikini & I haven't yet seen the new holiday specials which would make a heck of a lot more sense than the "infinity" nonsense I'm reading here.

Our astronomy club comes to this site for astronomy news only, to put up with the duress of other people talking about how brilliant other people are who say nothing intellible.
Ethelred
3.9 / 5 (11) Dec 13, 2011
May I recommend that you either ignore the comments or go to an astronomy only site.

However, if you really want pain from infinity I recommend looking into higher order infinities like the Irrational Numbers vs the Rational Numbers. Both are infinite groups but there is an infinite number of irrationals for each rational despite what you were told about there being nothing bigger than infinity.

The explanation for this made my brain hurt.

Still now I know that when Buzz Lightyear says 'To infinity and beyond' he isn't actually wrong as there is something bigger than infinity.

Ethelred
omatumr
1 / 5 (10) Dec 13, 2011
As Western society collapses:

1. Ordinary citizens struggle for housing and food

2. Cosmologists, nuclear, particle and solar physicists report

a) Supermassive black holes appeared from nothing

www.physorg.com/n...rse.html

b) The "God particle" may be found today

www.quantumdiarie...-exists/

c) Our climate is immune to Earth's heat source - the Sun, but sensitive to trace levels of CO2 in an insulating layer of air

http://noconsensu...nt-62303

http://judithcurr...t-149143

One of the most pressing issues facing us today: Can arrogance be reduced so politicians and scientists again serve society?

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
www.omatumr.com/
http://myprofile....anuelo09
Ethelred
3.7 / 5 (10) Dec 13, 2011
Let me know when look at what I linked to Oliver. Your theory will not become correct just because you ignore reality.

And speaking of moral collapse how much longer til you get off parole.

Can arrogance be reduced so politicians and scientists again serve society?
I don't know about the politicians but your arrogance is right up there with Newton. Which is the only thing the two of you have in common.

Ethelred
rubberman
3.7 / 5 (3) Dec 13, 2011
I'd be willing to bet that there is also some sort of cranial impact in Ollies past....
Telekinetic
1.6 / 5 (7) Dec 13, 2011
"Our astronomy club comes to this site for astronomy news only, to put up with the duress of other people talking about how brilliant other people are who say nothing intellible."

It took me a moment, but I think you were trying to say "intelligible".
Anda
1 / 5 (1) Dec 18, 2011
Calippo, calippo que tonto es el calippo la madre que lo parió.
Sei proprio cretino.
Mais quel con nom de dieu de putain de sa mère.
and Omatumr...
TimESimmons...
maffanculo Freaks
Greetings from Europe
TimESimmons
1 / 5 (3) Dec 19, 2011
Una vez más ¿por qué
demostrar que estoy equivocado
http://www.presto...ndex.htm
Pet_mar
1 / 5 (1) Jan 03, 2012
The kernel of the world:

Mass of the world : 10 ^ 55 kg

Supermassive black hole density 1.8 x 10 ^8 kg / litre

Volume of the kernel should be : 5,6 x 10 ^ 46 litre = 5,6 x 10 ^ 43 m3 = 5,6 x 10 ^ 16 km 3

Volume of a sphere is V = 4/3 x Pi * r ^3

r^3= (3V/ 4 Pi)

r= 210 thousand km

I suppose such a big black hole would be unstable

Shwartzchild radius:

~3 * M / M sun

3 * 10^55 / 10 ^30 = 3 * 10 ^ 25 km


It would swallow anything within this distance.

Could the energy released during such a collision or "absorption" process cause to explode the kernel?

This is my hypothesis.
Pet_mar
1 / 5 (1) Jan 03, 2012
In the above should be : Universe instead of world