Skeletons point to Columbus voyage for syphilis origins

Dec 20, 2011

Skeletons don't lie. But sometimes they may mislead, as in the case of bones that reputedly showed evidence of syphilis in Europe and other parts of the Old World before Christopher Columbus made his historic voyage in 1492.

None of this skeletal evidence, including 54 published reports, holds up when subjected to standardized analyses for both diagnosis and dating, according to an appraisal in the current Yearbook of . In fact, the skeletal data bolsters the case that syphilis did not exist in Europe before Columbus set sail.

"This is the first time that all 54 of these cases have been evaluated systematically," says George Armelagos, an at Emory University and co-author of the appraisal. "The evidence keeps accumulating that a of syphilis came from the New World with Columbus' crew and rapidly evolved into the venereal disease that remains with us today."

The appraisal was led by two of Armelagos' former graduate students at Emory: Molly Zuckerman, who is now an assistant professor at Mississippi State University, and Kristin Harper, currently a post-doctoral fellow at Columbia University. Additional authors include Emory anthropologist John Kingston and Megan Harper from the University of Missouri.

"Syphilis has been around for 500 years," Zuckerman says. "People started debating where it came from shortly afterwards, and they haven't stopped since. It was one of the first global diseases, and understanding where it came from and how it spread may help us combat diseases today."

'The natural selection of a disease'

The treponemal family of bacteria causes syphilis and related diseases that share some symptoms but spread differently. Syphilis is sexually transmitted. Yaws and bejel, which occurred in early New World populations, are that are transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or oral contact.

The first recorded epidemic of venereal syphilis occurred in Europe in 1495. One hypothesis is that a subspecies of Treponema from the warm, moist climate of the tropical New World mutated into the venereal subspecies to survive in the cooler and relatively more hygienic European environment.

The fact that syphilis is a stigmatized, sexual disease has added to the controversy over its origins, Zuckerman says.

"In reality, it appears that venereal syphilis was the by-product of two different populations meeting and exchanging a pathogen," she says. "It was an adaptive event, the of a disease, independent of morality or blame."

An early doubter

Armelagos, a pioneer of the field of bioarcheology, was one of the doubters decades ago, when he first heard the Columbus theory for syphilis. "I laughed at the idea that a small group of sailors brought back this disease that caused this major European epidemic," he recalls.

While teaching at the University of Massachusetts, he and graduate student Brenda Baker decided to investigate the matter and got a shock: All of the available evidence at the time actually supported the Columbus theory. "It was a paradigm shift," Armelagos says. The pair published their results in 1988.

In 2008, Harper and Armelagos published the most comprehensive comparative genetic analysis ever conducted on syphilis's family of bacteria. The results again supported the hypothesis that syphilis, or some progenitor, came from the New World.

A second, closer look

But reports of pre-Columbian skeletons showing the lesions of chronic syphilis have kept cropping up in the Old World. For this latest appraisal of the skeletal evidence, the researchers gathered all of the published reports.

They found that most of the skeletal material did not meet at least one of the standardized, diagnostic criteria for chronic syphilis, including pitting on the skull known as caries sicca and pitting and swelling of the long bones.

The few published cases that did meet the criteria tended to come from coastal regions where seafood was a big part of the diet. The so-called "marine reservoir effect," caused by eating seafood which contains "old carbon" from upwelling, deep ocean waters, can throw off radiocarbon dating of a skeleton by hundreds, or even thousands, of years. Analyzing the collagen levels of the skeletal material enabled the researchers to estimate the seafood consumption and factor that result into the radiocarbon dating.

"Once we adjusted for the marine signature, all of the skeletons that showed definite signs of treponemal disease appeared to be dated to after Columbus returned to Europe," Harper says.

"The origin of is a fascinating, compelling question," Zuckerman says. "The current evidence is pretty definitive, but we shouldn't close the book and say we're done with the subject. The great thing about science is constantly being able to understand things in a new light."

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devon_naidoo
not rated yet Dec 20, 2011
This report contradicts the "Columbus cleared of bringing syphilis to Europe" report published October 27, 2010 by Lin Edwards.
GuruShabu
1 / 5 (2) Dec 20, 2011
"and relatively more hygienic European environment."...where did the authors bring this?
It was quite the contrary!
The indigenous population in América were cleaner. They did not had castles where people used to defecate and piss in the dark aisles. The ships that travelled to and fro America were a cleaner environment?
GuruShabu
1 / 5 (2) Dec 20, 2011
"and relatively more hygienic European environment."!
Where did the author bring this from?
Were the castles in Europe cleaner than the forest?
Do you know people used to defecate and urinate in the dark aisles and corridors?
Were the ships cleaner?
Irreverentideas
not rated yet Dec 20, 2011
GuruShabu, Cleanliness doesn't have a thing to do with syphilis. Also, the cities in the Americas were larger than the cities in Europe, until well after contact. From all the skeletal evidence I have ever worked with, the New World is the best example of the origin. Jane Bikstra in the USA, and Tony Waldron, at UCL, have both run aDNA analysis on syphillis in order to determine the origin, and that data also points to the Americas. Most often pre-contact syphilis in the old world is confused with leprosy, because the skeletal evidence is very similar. Cleanliness also has nothing to do with leprosy. Just to head that one off.
Pediopal
not rated yet Dec 20, 2011
Irreverentideas,
Apparently you did not read the article thoroughly. Guru was quoting what the article said at the bottom of the 6th paragraph. Guru is correct in stating that the Native Americans were far cleaner AND healthier that the European invaders. They definitely would have been better off if the Europeans had stayed home.
Mandan
not rated yet Dec 20, 2011
Why would it be surprising that in comparison to all the transmissible diseases that came over from the Old World with the Europeans, at least one would have been taken back?

Many diseases crossed into the human species from domesticated animals. The Native Americans had unique domesticates, and if I were a researcher on the subject, I would look to such New World animals as llamas, alpacas, or turkeys for possible ancestral microbes related to syphilis.
Pirouette
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 21, 2011
Irreverentideas,
Apparently you did not read the article thoroughly. Guru was quoting what the article said at the bottom of the 6th paragraph. Guru is correct in stating that the Native Americans were far cleaner AND healthier that the European invaders. They definitely would have been better off if the Europeans had stayed home.


This is true. . .the Europeans bathed very seldom, if at all in those days. The French invented perfume to try and mask the stench from their unwashed bodies. The rivers were polluted and the water wasn't even fit to drink downstream, which is why beer brewing was invented to kill the bacteria that was in the water which made people get sick with dysentery and other illnesses. Recipes for winemaking in Europe was an ancient tradition.
Whereas, native populations in the Americas washed in rivers and streams very often because they had to live in very close quarters with each other.
Pirouette
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 21, 2011
They had no soap, but various plants had soap-like qualities which natives probably used to cleanse themselves, such as Bouncing Bet aka soapwort. I don't know that the natives would have been better off if the Europeans had never come, but they certainly seem to be doing alright now with the government taking care of their needs. They do have certain benefits, but there are also some drawbacks.
Antiqueguy
not rated yet Dec 25, 2011
"In reality, it appears that venereal syphilis was the by-product of two different populations meeting and exchanging a pathogen," she says. "It was an adaptive event, the natural selection of a disease, independent of morality or blame."

Dr. Zuckerman is right there is no morality involved in the "adaptive event". The morality is in the spread of the disease. Sailors visiting prostitutes gave the disease to the new world and others visiting the same prostitutes spread the disease far and wide.

Whether you have religious beliefs or not there is a purpose to morality above spiritual ones. Sex only within marriage would have limited this disease to a relative small group rather than make it the pandemic it was to the world.

We tend to dismiss morality today as old fashioned but it still should have it's place in society. What happens if syphilis becomes totally resistant to our current antibiotics as the adaptive process continues. We could repeat the pandemic it originally was.