Possible signs of the Higgs remain in latest analyses (Update)

Dec 13, 2011
This Thursday, March 22, 2007 file photo shows the magnet core of the world's largest superconducting solenoid magnet (CMS, Compact Muon Solenoid) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)'s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particule accelerator in Geneva Switzerland. Scientists at CERN will hold a public seminar Tuesday Dec. 13, 2011 to present their latest findings from the search for an elusive sub-atomic particle known as the Higgs boson. Physicists are increasingly confident that they have narrowed down the place where it will be found and may even already have hints at its existence hidden away in reams of data. (AP Photo/KEYSTONE/Martial Trezzini, File)

(PhysOrg.com) -- Two experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have nearly eliminated the space in which the Higgs boson could dwell, scientists announced in a seminar held at CERN today. However, the ATLAS and CMS experiments see modest excesses in their data that could soon uncover the famous missing piece of the physics puzzle.

The experiments revealed the latest results as part of their regular report to the CERN Council, which provides oversight for the laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland.

Theorists have predicted that some subatomic particles gain mass by interacting with other particles called Higgs bosons. The Higgs boson is the only undiscovered part of the Standard Model of physics, which describes the basic building blocks of matter and their interactions.

The experiments’ main conclusion is that the Standard Model Higgs boson, if it exists, is most likely to have a mass constrained to the range 116-130 GeV by the ATLAS experiment, and 115-127 GeV by CMS. Tantalising hints have been seen by both experiments in this mass region, but these are not yet strong enough to claim a discovery.

Higgs bosons, if they exist, are short-lived and can decay in many different ways. Just as a vending machine might return the same amount of change using different combinations of coins, the Higgs can decay into different combinations of particles. Discovery relies on observing statistically significant excesses of the particles into which they decay rather than observing the Higgs itself. Both ATLAS and CMS have analysed several decay channels, and the experiments see small excesses in the low mass region that has not yet been excluded .

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What is a Higgs Boson?

Taken individually, none of these excesses is any more statistically significant than rolling a die and coming up with two sixes in a row. What is interesting is that there are multiple independent measurements pointing to the region of 124 to 126 GeV. It’s far too early to say whether ATLAS and CMS have discovered the Higgs boson, but these updated results are generating a lot of interest in the particle physics community.

Hundreds of scientists from U.S. universities and institutions are heavily involved in the search for the Higgs boson at LHC experiments, said CMS physicist Boaz Klima of the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago. “U.S. scientists are definitely in the thick of things in all aspects and at all levels,” he said.

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Higgs Boson: How do you search for it?

More than 1,600 scientists, students, engineers and technicians from more than 90 U.S. universities and five U.S. national laboratories take part in the CMS and ATLAS experiments, the vast majority via an ultra-high broadband network that delivers LHC data to researchers at universities and national laboratories across the nation . The Department of Energy’s Office of Science and the National Science Foundation provide support for U.S. participation in these experiments. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is the host laboratory for the U.S. contingent on the CMS experiment, while Brookhaven National Laboratory hosts the U.S. ATLAS collaboration.

Over the coming months, both the CMS and ATLAS experiments will focus on refining their analyses in time for the winter particle physics conferences in March. The experiments will resume taking data in spring 2012.

“We’ve now analyzed all or most of the data taken in 2011 in some of the most important Higgs search analyses,” said ATLAS physicist Rik Yoshida of Argonne National Laboratory near Chicago. “I think everybody’s very surprised and pleased at the pace of progress.”

Higgs-hunting scientists on experiments at U.S. particle accelerator the Tevatron will also present results in March.

Discovering the type of Higgs boson predicted in the Standard Model would confirm a theory first put forward in the 1960s.

Even if the experiments find a particle where they expect to find the Higgs, it will take more analysis and more data to prove it is a Standard Model Higgs. If scientists found subtle departures from the Standard Model in the particle’s behavior, this would point to the presence of new physics, linked to theories that go beyond the Standard Model. Observing a non-Standard Model Higgs, currently beyond the reach of the LHC experiments with the data they’ve recorded so far, would immediately open the door to new physics.

Another possibility, discovering the absence of a Standard Model Higgs, would point to new physics at the LHC’s full design energy, set to be achieved after 2014. Whether ATLAS and CMS show over the coming months that the Standard Model Higgs boson exists or not, the LHC program is closing in on new discoveries.

Factfile on Large Hadron Collider

Here is a snapshot of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the giant machine that led the quest to identify a key sub-atomic particle known as the Higgs Boson, which is believed to confer mass.

- The LHC comprises four huge labs interspersed around a ring-shaped tunnel located near Geneva, 27 kilometres (16.9 miles) long and up to 175 metres (568 feet) below ground.

-- Beams of hydrogen protons are accelerated in opposed directions to more than 99.9999 percent of the speed of light. Powerful superconducting magnets, chilled to a temperature colder than deep space, then "bend" the beams so that streams of particles collide within four large chambers.

- The smashups fleetingly generate temperatures 100,000 times hotter than the Sun, replicating the conditions that prevailed just after the "Big Bang" that created the Universe 13.7 billion years ago.

- Swathing the chambers are detectors that give a 3-D image of the traces of sub-atomic particles hurled out from the protons' destruction. These traces are then closely analysed in the search for movements, properties or novel particles that could advance our understanding of matter.

-- In top gear, the LHC is designed to generate nearly a billion collisions per second. Above ground, a farm of 3,000 computers, one of the largest in the world, instantly crunches the number down to about 100 collisions that are of the most interest.

-- Peak LHC collisions generate 14 teraelectron volts (TeV), amounting to a high concentration of energy but only at an extraordinarily tiny scale. One TeV is the equivalent energy of motion of a flying mosquito. There is no safety risk, says CERN (the European Organisation for Nuclear Research).

- Other LHC's investigations include supersymmetry -- the idea that more massive particles exists beyond those in the Standard Model -- and the mystery why anti-matter is so rare compared to matter, its counterpart. Supersymmetry could explain why visible matter only accounts for some four percent of the cosmos. Dark matter (23 percent) and dark energy (73 percent) account for the rest.

- Completed in 2008, the LHC cost 6.03 billion Swiss francs (roughly 5.9 billion euros, 4.5 billion dollars).

Particle physics: A timeline

Following is a timeline of particle physics following the announcement Tuesday that scientists believe they are nearer to finding the elusive Higgs Boson, predicted to be the particle that confers mass.

5th century BC: Greek philosopher Democritus suggests the Universe consists of empty space and of invisible and indivisible particles called atoms.

1802: John Dalton, a Quaker-educated English physicist and chemist, lays groundwork of modern theory of the elements and the atom.

1897: Electron discovered by Britain's Joseph Thomson, who later proposes a "plum pudding" model of the atom. He suggests the atom is a slightly positive sphere with raisin-like electrons inside that have a negative charge.

1899-1919: New Zealand physicist Ernest Rutherford identifies atomic nucleus, the proton and alpha and beta particles.

1920s: Advances in quantum theory, about the behaviour of matter at the atomic level.

1932: Neutron, similar to the proton but with no electrical charge, is discovered by James Chadwick of Britain. The first antiparticle, the positron (the mirror particle to the electron), is discovered by American Carl Anderson.

1934: Italy's Enrico Fermi postulates the existence of the neutrino (Italian for "little neutral one"), a neutral-charge partner to the electron. Theory is confirmed in 1959.

1950s: Invention of particle accelerator leads to surge in discoveries of sub-atomic particles.

1964:

- British physicist Peter Higgs postulates existence of a particle, later known as the Higgs Boson, that provides mass to otherwise massless particles.

- Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig of the United States propose that protons and neutrons are comprised of quarks.

1974: Development of the "Standard Model," a theory that everything in the Universe comprises 12 building blocks divided into two families, leptons and quarks, and these are governed by four fundamental forces.

1977-2000: Flurry of discoveries that strengthens Standard Model hypothesis, including the existence of bottom and top quarks, tau lepton, gluon, tau neutrino and the W and Z bosons which help carry the "weak" force.

Explore further: Detecting neutrinos, physicists look into the heart of the Sun

Provided by Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

4.7 /5 (19 votes)

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User comments : 23

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mcnerka
not rated yet Dec 13, 2011
And the answer is... 126GeV!
ant_oacute_nio354
1.2 / 5 (17) Dec 13, 2011
The Higgs doesn't exist because the mass is the electric dipole moment:

m = e.k /x (1-pi^3alpha^2 /2)

m-mass;e-electron charge;k-Boltzmann constant;
x-Compton wavelengthg;pi=3.1415927;
alpha-fine structure constant.

e.k.c = h (1 pi^3alpha^2 /2)

c-light speed;h-Planck constant.

Antonio Saraiva
Crazy_council
1.8 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2011
Its a very exciting time if your interested in mass or Gr. The higgs could be so many things, my interest is if the higgs is the fabric of spacetime or if it requires a further framework to exist in
dtyarbrough
1.6 / 5 (20) Dec 13, 2011
What if there is only one Higgs Bozon and, like other particles in quantum physics, it exists everywhere until it is observed. When physicists observe it next year, 12-21-2012, everything elsewhere in the universe will loose its mass while everything locally will create a black hole. But how did the Mayans know when we would find it?
baudrunner
1.8 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2011
What is a particule? I'm glad you asked - in French, it is the territorial designation sometimes attached as a suffix to a nobleman's surname, following the preposition de, analogous to the Italian predicato. Really, is anybody editing out there in cyberspace?
wiyosaya
5 / 5 (1) Dec 13, 2011
What is a particule? I'm glad you asked - in French, it is the territorial designation sometimes attached as a suffix to a nobleman's surname, following the preposition de, analogous to the Italian predicato. Really, is anybody editing out there in cyberspace?

I'd also like to know what the "ultra-high broadband network" was smoking??

If only authors would discover the grammar checker - a technology that has been in the field for almost twenty years.
Shinichi D_
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 13, 2011
@dtyarbrough: Read Greg Egan: Quarantine
Doug_Huffman
1.7 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2011
Read Greg Egan: Quarantine
Just finished Wang's Carpets. Outstanding, falsification and anthropic cosmology in a good short story.
Blakut
5 / 5 (2) Dec 13, 2011
From the video: Run children, run, it's massive Eddy! Is the Higgs boson similar to a fat man chasing children in a pool? Is that why we can't find it, cause all the smaller particles are creeped out by it? :D

An more on topic, anything less than a 5-6 sigma wouldn't be a discovery...
Dug
1 / 5 (5) Dec 13, 2011
"Possible signs of the Higgs" yawnnnn! Call me when you have some probable proof.
Vendicar_Decarian
1.7 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2011
Wow. Look. I wrote it down right here 126 Gev on a piece of paper back in 1965, and put it in an envelope.

Look. I'll show you. Here it says 126 Gev. See?

Thank you for your time.
BIG COCK
Dec 13, 2011
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
BIG COCK
Dec 13, 2011
This comment has been removed by a moderator.
Turritopsis
1.5 / 5 (8) Dec 13, 2011
dtyarbrough:

What if there is only one Higgs Bozon and, like other particles in quantum physics, it exists everywhere until it is observed[?]


That is very correct.

Peter Higgs field theory proposes that the field interacts with the energy in it creating massive particles. The theory proposes a single field. Higgs field. This is indeterminable. There may be seperate fields occupying 'irrelative' universes. But for us If the field didn't occupy the space between the milky way and another galaxy we wouldnt know the galaxy is there.

Photons are bosons. Spin 1 particles. Force carriers. Light beams are straigh waves. The Higgs field bends and contorts and light follows a straight line through the curvature.

Fermions are 1/2 spin. They contort the Higgs field. The half spin causes the particles to come back on themselves.

The Higgs field is a singular unit. Some energy propagates with negative curvature causing negatively charged massive particles. The inverse for positive.
Turritopsis
1.6 / 5 (8) Dec 13, 2011
Photons have a linear propagation. They are radiation.

What you have is a radiative field occupied by massive particles.

Strangely relative to our field. Particles and radiation. Occams razor would cut all other theories.

If the boson carrying the force of mass (Higgs boson) is witnessed it will mean that we have finally found something marvelous. The God Particle.
Turritopsis
1.6 / 5 (7) Dec 13, 2011
A Higgs boson is a contortion of the Higgs field. There is no separation between one Higgs boson and another.

All Higgs bosons are one. They are the Higgs field itself being molded by the energy creating it.

If one region of the field had all of the energy of the whole universe the field would collapse into that one region.

The amount of relativistic energy created at the LHC is far lower than the energy of the universe. The LHC is nowhere nearly powerful enough to cause the collapse of the universe.
Cave_Man
1.2 / 5 (6) Dec 13, 2011
The amount of relativistic energy created at the LHC is far lower than the energy of the universe. The LHC is nowhere nearly powerful enough to cause the collapse of the universe.


What makes you so sure the creation of a black hole or anything involving black holes is relativistic besides stuff that has not interacted (other than gravitational interaction) with the black hole.

Does it take the energy of the entire universe to form black holes? I assume you aren't a true scientist.

Further more when scientists start saying they are creating a magnetically confined collision that involves matter going near the speed of light and resulting in a reaction that is supposedly "10 times the temperature of the Sun" it doesn't really assuage my fears, nor should it.
Cave_Man
1 / 5 (3) Dec 13, 2011
If the second movie in this article is not a sign of the "end times" then I don't know what is. At least it's a different kind of end, cultural disconnectedness and ignorance isn't any better than a black hole spaghettifying us IMO.
Turritopsis
1.7 / 5 (6) Dec 14, 2011
Any micro-blackhole created at the LHC would under earths gravitational pressure quickly dissipate with Hawking radiation. The bh would lend it's dense energy into the creation of particles that exist under earths gravitational pressure. The quantum virtual particle-antiparticle pairs would quickly rob this micro-bh of its energy.

Micro blackholes are not black at all. They are extremely radiative. They are extremely dense and not massive enough to retain that density gravitationally. Virtual particles easily rob energy from micro blackholes. The region of space around them would be radiating brightly.

It could destroy a part of the collider though. The effects would be highly localized though the radius of the event would be extremely small as the time for the evaporation would be extremely fast. No time for the micro-bh to get anywhere before it decays into photons, quarks, electrons....
Isaacsname
not rated yet Dec 14, 2011
You know,...I was thinking,....I could use that thing like a big magnetic railgun to get into space o,O

vidyunmaya
1.4 / 5 (9) Dec 14, 2011
Mis-conceptions lead to chaotic state and ambiguity or even self-deception.
The subject of Cosmology is a border land between Science and philosophy.
Cosmology needs best of brains trust.Necessity-Demand :east west interaction
May GOD help better wisdom
SENSE Index-SENSITIVE INDEX-SUN SPOT DYNAMIC SPIRIT DRIVES PARTICLE FLOWS
http://www.scribd...72919866
AmritSorli
1 / 5 (5) Dec 15, 2011
Mass is an energy form of quantum vacuum in symmetry with diminished energy density of quantum vacuum. Presence of mass diminishes energy density of quantum vacuum respectively to the energy of a given mass. A given particle with a mass diminishes energy density of quantum vacuum, mass-less particle does not diminish energy of quantum vacuum. In order to explain mass of elementary particles this view does not require existence of the hypothetical boson of Higgs.

Callippo
1 / 5 (7) Dec 15, 2011
In dense aether model the space-time is modeled with water surface: the time dimension is perpendicular to the water surface. The light waves correspond the transverse waves in this analogy. The dimensional scale for their spreading is limited with dispersion at both ends: the tiny ripples are dispersing with Brownian noise, whereas these large ones are dispersing into longitudinal waves at distance. The point is, the geometry of these fluctuations is self-similar: they can be modelled with system of dense packed hyperspheres, which leads into dodecahedral geometry of density fluctuations. At the case of CMBR this geometry can be observed like the peaks at the power spectrum of CMBR field. My assumption therefore is, the same feature should be observable at the power spectrum of particle collisions, attributed to Higgs field. IMO Higgs field is simply extremely miniaturized version of dark matter foam, which reflects the symmetry of Universe.
HenisDov
1 / 5 (6) Dec 18, 2011
Higgs? Bypass Singularity?

http://universe-life.com/2011/12/10/eotoe-embarrassingly-obvious-theory-of-everything/" title="http://http://universe-life.com/2011/12/10/eotoe-embarrassingly-obvious-theory-of-everything/" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://universe-l...rything/
E=Total[m(1 D)] (D = distance travelled by mass since singularity)
The big bang did not create matter or antimatter. Singularity was all the energy-mass of the universe.
Matters and Antimatters are big-bang follow-up evolutionary, circumstantial-accidental expansion collision products.
At 10^-35 seconds since big bang, D was already a fraction of a second above zero. This is when gravity started. This is what started gravity. At this instance started the energy space texture, the straining of space texture, the space-texture-memory, gravity, that most probably will eventually overcome expansion and initiate impansion back to singularity, again.

Dov Henis (comments from 22nd century)
http://universe-life.com
M E de Souza
1 / 5 (4) Jan 25, 2012
The Higgs does not exist because quarks are composite. Prof. Gerald Miller at Argonne (Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 112001 (2007)) found that close to its center the neutron has a negative charge equal to -1/3e (inside the positive region with 1/2e). This result can not be explained by 3 pointlike quarks. Other indications are fond in the paper Weak decays of hadrons reveal compositeness of quarks which can be directly accessed from Google (it is at the top of the lists in the subjects Weak decays of hadrons, Decays of hadrons and Weak decays)