The future cometh: Science, technology and humanity at Singularity Summit 2011 (Part II)

Dec 02, 2011 by Stuart Mason Dambrot feature

(PhysOrg.com) -- In its essence, technology can be seen as our perpetually evolving attempt to extend our sensorimotor cortex into physical reality: From the earliest spears and boomerangs augmenting our arms, horses and carts our legs, and fire our environment, we’re now investigating and manipulating the fabric of that reality – including the very components of life itself. Moreover, this progression has not been linear, but instead follows an iterative curve of inflection points demarcating disruptive changes in dominant societal paradigms. Suggested by mathematician Vernor Vinge in his acclaimed science fiction novel True Names (1981) and introduced explicitly in his essay The Coming Technological Singularity (1993), the term was popularized by inventor and futurist Ray Kurzweil in The Singularity is Near (2005). The two even had a Singularity Chat in 2002.

While the is not to be confused with the astronomical description of an infinitesimal object of infinite density, it can be seen as a technological event horizon at which present models of the future may break down in the not-too-distant future when the accelerating rate of scientific discovery and technological innovation approaches a real-time asymptote. Beyond lies a future (be it utopian or dystopian) in which a key question emerges: Evolving at dramatically slower biological time scales, must Homo sapiens become Homo syntheticus in order to retain our position as the self-acclaimed crown of creation – or will that title be usurped by sentient Artificial Intelligence? The Singularity and all of its implications were recently addressed at Singularity Summit 2011 in New York City.


Part 1: The future cometh: Science, technology and humanity at Singularity Summit 2011 (Part I)
In an ambitious talk (and accompanied by his engaging dry wit), neuroscientist Christof Koch – Professor of Biology and Engineering at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and the Chief Scientific Officer of the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle – discussed The and Mathematics of – a thorny problem at the forefront of cognitive neuroscience. The challenge is derived from the quixotic nature of consciousness as an instance of qualia: introspectively accessible, phenomenal aspects of our mental lives we experience as real, but which nonetheless elude definition and neurobiological localization.

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Christof Koch on "The Neurobiology and Mathematics of Consciousness" at Singularity Summit 2011

For Koch, whose research has focused on the physical basis of consciousness for well over a decade, consciousness is a fundamental property of networked entities that may well be explained by psychiatrist Giulio Tononi’s integrated information theory (IIT) – an approach hypothesizing that consciousness is measure in that it corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. Koch also sees IIT as a blueprint for building sentient machines.

Koch rejects a number of popular concepts of consciousness, including the views that consciousness emerges from the brain or is inherent in complexity. “It is not the nature of the stuff that the brain is made out of that matters for mind, it is rather the organization of that stuff—the way the parts of the system are hooked up, their causal interactions,” he writes in his latest book, Consciousness – Confessions of a Romantic Reductionist, scheduled to be published by MIT Press in early 2012. “A fancier way of stating this is consciousness is substrate-independent.”

Speaking of substrate independence, it should be noted that some of the Singularity’s most noteworthy thinkers, researchers and futurists did not present at Singularity Summit 2011. Among them is Randal Koene, neuroscientist, neuroengineer leading the effort in advancing substrate-independent minds (ASIM) – that is, advancing the field of substrate-independent mind (SIM) research, which is focused on transferring mind functions from the biological substrate to another substrate on which those functions can be replicated. (The process of moving our mind from our biological brain to a SIM is referred to as mind uploading, while whole brain emulation is a specific SIM implementation.)

In fact, Koene – Co-Founder of carboncopies, Founder of MindUploading, Director of Neural Engineering Corporation, and Director of Analysis at Halcyon Molecular – is a member of the Oxford working group that convened in 2007 to create a first roadmap toward whole brain emulation, a topic he addressed at Singularity Summit 2009. He also discussed Artificial General Intelligence and Neuroscience at AGI 2011.


Randal Koene at Singularity Summit 2009 -- The Time is Now: As a Species and as Individuals we Need Whole Brain Emulation

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Koene (Artificial General Intelligence and Neuroscience at AGI 2011)

For Koene, substrate independence is about successful long-term evolution rather than the actual technological mind uploading process of achieving that independence. “If you look forward billions of years toward the end perspective,” Koene told PhysOrg, “what will take up the majority of intelligent spacetime? Since there’s always going to be the competitive natural selection of universal Darwinism, the entities that survive are those that are the most able to understand, adapt to and address new challenges in their surroundings. If you’re dependent on a particular substrate, you can’t be that flexible.” To Koene, then, ultimate adaptability is substrate independence as pattern rather than genetic propagation – a concept he explicated in Pattern Survival versus Gene Survival.

In the near term, Koene points out, the focus is on the whole brain emulation approach to creating substrate-independent minds because “it’s the one approach that is so conservative, we can work on it today. It’s the process of emulating processes as they operate in the brain right now rather than creating something more abstract. In this case you don’t want to do the latter because we don’t have a clear understanding of how the brain works on a cognitive level: We wouldn’t know what to capture where – that is, what’s important to keep in order to create a substrate-independent version of yourself that retains what you personally consider essential about you.” Since Koene sees the mind as emerging from the brain, his approach to whole brain emulation therefore looks to neuroanatomy and neurophysiology as the determinants of how and what we think.

Alexander Wissner-Gross offered his own implementation-centric view of mind uploading, telling PhysOrg that this will be accomplished using a non-invasive technique – i.e., not a Hans Moravec-type procedure, which appears rather barbaric despite its technological sophistication:

A robot surgeon is equipped with a manipulator which subdivides into ever-finer branches that terminate in billions of nanometer-scale sensitive probes equipped with electrochemical sensors that translate single-neuron activity into a functional simulation. Once so virtually replicated, a neuron is removed, with the process continuing until the brain has been, in a sense, consumed.

“I’m not sure how long it will take,” adds Wissner-Gross, “but, again, I’m optimistic. A non-invasive mind uploading technology might look something like fMRI capture of brain states with a veneer of machine learning.” Wissner-Gross also waxes enthusiastic about optogenetics, a groundbreaking photonics-based technique developed by Ed Boyden in the Synthetic Neurobiology Group at MIT for reading from, and writing to, single neurons.

Other recent research is also suggestive: Neuroanatomy and neurophysiology are inherently three-dimensional domains. Neuronal cell body projections – axons and dendrites – can interconnect large numbers of neurons distributed over large cortical distances. Since the brain processes sensory, somatic, conceptual, and other classes of information in this 3D structural space, the need to (1) image neural structures and (2) stimulate and record neural signals are essential to understanding the relationship between brain structure and function. While 3D imaging and 3D photostimulation using scanning or parallel excitation methods have been used, they have not previously been combined into an optical system that can successfully decouple the corresponding optical planes when using a single lens – a shortcoming that has limited investigators to small neural areas. Recently, however, scientists at Université Paris Descartes have combined digital single photon holographic stimulation with remote-focusing-based epifluorescent functional imaging to overcome these limitations.

Working at the intersection of physics and biology, Francesca Anselmi and Cathie Ventalon in the Emiliani Wavefront-Engineering Microscopy Group led by Dr. Valentina Emiliani, along with Aurélien Bègue and David Ogden, have demonstrated simultaneous high-resolution single-neuron 3D neural imaging and photostimulation by integrating digital single photon holographic stimulation with scanless remote-focusing-based epifluorescent functional imaging.

Asked about the role of quantum processes in consciousness – specifically, as extrapolated from Coherently wired light-harvesting in photosynthetic marine algae at ambient temperature, research conducted at University of Toronto by Elisabetta Collini and others – Wissner-Gross adds that while this and related channelrhodopsin research disproves the argument that quantum events don’t occur at room temperature, he cautions that it still is the case that capturing quantum states may not be necessary for mind uploading.

Not necessarily so for Eliezer Yudkowsky, an AI theorist focused on ensuring that the Singularity gives rise to what he terms a friendly AI (as witnessed by his talk, Open Problems in Friendly Artificial Intelligence). Speaking with PhysOrg, Yudkowsky succinctly proclaimed, “It’s all quarks.”

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Eliezer Yudkowsky on "Open Problems in Friendly Artificial Intelligence" at Singularity Summit 2011

Intimately related to human-like AI is an ability to recognize, understand and act upon complex visual images, motion and sensory flow fields. Stealth startup Vicarious Systems co-founders Scott Brown and Dileep George – the latter previously CTO of Numenta (which pioneered the neocortical-like technology Hierarchical Temporal Memory, or HTM, a theory first described by Numenta co-founder Jeff Hawkins in On Intelligence) and before that Research Fellow at the Redwood Neuroscience Institute – gave a seductively sparse talk. From Planes to Brains: Building AI the Wright Way described their neurobiological approach to artificial vision software that at first will understand the contents of images and videos the way humans do, eventually expanding to all sensory systems by building what might be called a sensory mode-agnostic model – that is, by capturing neocortical invariants common across vision, hearing, olfaction, taste and touch – that mirrors human learning and thought. While the Vicarious system wasn’t demonstrated, details will be revealed…soon.

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Dileep George and Scott Brown on "From Planes to Brains: Building AI the Wright Way"

Given the historical difficulties of instantiating human-like visual performance and comprehension in AI systems, it will be disruptive indeed if that revelation occurs far in advance of the Singularity it portends.

Explore further: Japan orders air bag maker to conduct probe

More information: Part 1: The future cometh: Science, technology and humanity at Singularity Summit 2011 (Part I)

3.4 /5 (23 votes)

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AdvancedAtheist
2.2 / 5 (11) Dec 02, 2011
Thirty-something Eliezer Yudkowsky by his own admission didn't go to high school, didn't go to college, and apparently has never held a job. What qualifies him as an "AI theorist"?
Nerdyguy
1.3 / 5 (9) Dec 02, 2011
No updated timeline. Oh, well, maybe the universe did end in 2000.
smd
5 / 5 (8) Dec 02, 2011
Thirty-something Eliezer Yudkowsky by his own admission didn't go to high school, didn't go to college, and apparently has never held a job. What qualifies him as an "AI theorist"?


There are individuals such as Albert Einstein, Steve Jobs and many others (autodidactic.com/profiles/profiles.htm) who do not complete or pursue a traditional education, but are instead auto-didactic: self-directed and self-taught with levels of intelligence significantly above the statistical norm. Credentials by themselves are not necessarily correlated with creativity or insight. Eliezer Yudkowsky may be such an individual.
smd
not rated yet Dec 02, 2011
No updated timeline. Oh, well, maybe the universe did end in 2000.


The graph in Part I (from Kurzweil's The Singularity is Near) is included as an iconic illustration of accelerating technology innovation.
agref
not rated yet Dec 02, 2011
How do you know it's exponential acceleration? It could just be the beginning of a logistic curve.
Pyle
not rated yet Dec 02, 2011
smd: In the self-directed/self-taught vein, here is a cool talk given by a researcher who put computers in rural villages in India, sat back and watched what the people (inevitably children) did with them.
http://www.ted.co...ves.html
Very cool.

Sorry for the tangent everyone.
thales
4 / 5 (4) Dec 02, 2011
Thirty-something Eliezer Yudkowsky by his own admission didn't go to high school, didn't go to college, and apparently has never held a job. What qualifies him as an "AI theorist"?


He theorizes about AI.
thales
3 / 5 (2) Dec 02, 2011
Here's a paper written by Yudkowsky. You can decide for yourself if he's "qualified".

http://singinst.o...risk.pdf
hyongx
1 / 5 (2) Dec 02, 2011
Quote from the above Yudowsky article:
"There is a fallacy oft-committed in discussion of Artificial Intelligence, especially AI of superhuman capability. Someone says: "When technology advances far enough we'll be able to build minds far surpassing human intelligence. Now, it's obvious that how large a cheesecake you can make depends on your intelligence. A superintelligence could build enormous cheesecakes - cheesecakes the size of cities - by golly, the future will be full of giant cheesecakes!" The question is whether the superintelligence wants to build giant cheesecakes. The vision leaps directly from capability to actuality, without considering the necessary intermediate of motive. The following chains of reasoning, considered in isolation without supporting argument, all exhibit the Fallacy of the Giant Cheesecake."
Isaacsname
1 / 5 (2) Dec 02, 2011
I'm somewhat skeptical about some of the proposed " paradigm shifts " like augmented human brains, even if we were we able to augment the brain by " downloading new software ", as Hollywood so erroneously portrays, the most overlooked problem with that are things like muscle memory. Just because you can download some snappy Kung phooey file doesn't mean your body will be able to assimilate and execute the code properly.

This will be a major stumbling block, imnsho.

I'm going to have to read that Yudowsky paper, looks to be interesting, thanks.
smd
not rated yet Dec 02, 2011
smd: In the self-directed/self-taught vein, here is a cool talk given by a researcher who put computers in rural villages in India, sat back and watched what the people (inevitably children) did with them.
http://www.ted.co...ves.html
Very cool.

Sorry for the tangent everyone.


I think it's well-placed and not a tangent at all: It illustrates the early stages of massively distributed intelligence mediated by ubiquitous connected knowledge resources - which will, in the context of the Singularity under discussion, be augmented by strong Artificial Intelligence.

Thank you for posting it.
Cave_Man
2.5 / 5 (4) Dec 02, 2011
What qualifies him as an "AI theorist"?


Maybe his intelligence is artificial and only theoretical.

Just kidding, he sounds like a smart guy to me.

Although lately all this advancement just makes me think of how beautiful life can be in a stone age setting. Elders are respected, the processes of life like eating and drinking become almost spiritual and the fulfillment you gain from doing things "the hard way" makes it more than worth it.

I for one know that some things cannot be taught or downloaded and if it were attempted it would be an incredibly sad "achievement". Think about what the world would be like if you could download a happiness "app" into your brain to make you accept losing your parents or grandparents prior the the discovery of eternal life. I see it only as a hollow pointless victory. Who do we think we are? Masters of the universe? What do we do when no more can be done? Thank goodness we aren't there YET eh?
Skepticus
2.8 / 5 (4) Dec 02, 2011
...even if we were we able to augment the brain by " downloading new software ", as Hollywood so erroneously portrays, the most overlooked problem with that are things like muscle memory. Just because you can download some snappy Kung phooey file doesn't mean your body will be able to assimilate and execute the code properly.


Ha ha I can imagine some coach potatoes downloaded some Kungfu hot stuff and tried the flying scissor kick or the Chinese split. They ended up going to hospital in the last positions their torn muscles assumed!
Isaacsname
1 / 5 (1) Dec 02, 2011
my co-worker's half-sister made $199945 so far just working on the internet for a few hours. Read more on this site...blahblah


Really ?

There was this time I ate a meatball the size of a Volkswagon
Isaacsname
not rated yet Dec 02, 2011
blahblah


Ha ha I can imagine some coach potatoes downloaded some Kungfu hot stuff and tried the flying scissor kick or the Chinese split. They ended up going to hospital in the last positions their torn muscles assumed!


Right, or trying to pick up a violin and play Paganini's La Campanella .

I could see maybe augmenting a talent or skill you already practice, or maybe even " downloading a skill " in " lessons "
but who knows, the brain and consciousness in general might prove more elusive to conquer than we think.
FrankHerbert
3.1 / 5 (113) Dec 02, 2011
That's your view of the future. Don't be so lazy and maybe by the time The Future rolls around you'll have your muscle memory built up.

To go with the instrument analogy, I find the hardest part of learning a piece is comitting it to memory. This doesn't really get easier the more proficient at the instrument I become, while my ability to build muscle memory becomes easier the more I exercise it. Being able to download a piece into the brain much in the same way you load a midi into a digital instrument would be a great boon, even if practice were still required to manipulate the instrument correctly.

I don't see how you can poo poo what would be such an obviously paradigm changing technology. It would do more for knowledge than the spoken language, the written word, the printing press, or the internet.
Isaacsname
2.5 / 5 (2) Dec 03, 2011
Let's leave the poopoo on the monkey thread plz.

Frank, I played music for years, I put down the instruments for a year or 2 from time to time, when I pick them up again, I remember how to play, but I have to get my body used to it again, otherwise I end up with CT syndrome or tendonitis if I just try to rip right into it again.

We probably learned music differently, I learned by ear, so music comes naturally when I pick up any instrument, I can't really play any songs note-for-note, yet I can pretty much seamlessly play along in key with practically any music by ear.

So, I think that it's not just that easy to " download a new file " when the talents are learned, stored and recalled in ways that differ greatly from person to person.

Maybe they will work out the subtle nuances, but I think it will not be as easy as what we secretly hope for.
Nerdyguy
2.2 / 5 (10) Dec 03, 2011


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Let's just hope that this (above) isn't the kind of thing that gets downloaded into our implants!
bluehigh
1.1 / 5 (11) Dec 03, 2011
It would at least give you something to rattle around in that empty head of yours. An implant for you .. a brain?
smd
5 / 5 (1) Dec 03, 2011
That's your view of the future. Don't be so lazy and maybe by the time The Future rolls around you'll have your muscle memory built up.


Quite right: Neural codes, subnetwork interconnections, feedback and feedforward, pan-cortical synchronization, embodied cognition, perception, movement, learned skills - all may be ultimately addressable through optogenetics (as discussed in the article), or other yet-to-be-discovered techniques for reading/writing from/to individual neurons, as well as from/to endo- and exoneuronal levels of scale. Coupled with advances in synthetic genomics, there is no reason to assume that such a scenario is impossible or even implausible.

Remember Arthur C. Clarke's beautifully insightful quote: Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.
bluehigh
2 / 5 (12) Dec 03, 2011
'Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic'

Worth repeating - so I did.
Dug
4 / 5 (4) Dec 03, 2011
Regarding Yudowsky: "He theorizes about AI." Actually, I read his entire paper and didn't find any theories. In stead I found a well read understanding of what we know of intelligence - both human and "artificial." From this knowledge his very logical mind created a rather large amount of logical (and perhaps obvious after the fact) amount of deductions regarding of the logical development of AI - based on the current state of the various related technologies. Even with deducing that nanotechnology may be key to the rapid advancement of AI, there are no formal theories of anything offered - quite a bit logical speculations - again limited by what we and he currently know about AI. Yudowsky mind is extraordinary capable of rendering a comprehensive integrated "big picture" of the AI problem, not so much technically (as in solutions) as within the logical limitations of AI human development. Rather than AI theories of solutions, he more precisely defines the AI problem.
FrankHerbert
3 / 5 (112) Dec 03, 2011
Let's leave the poopoo on the monkey thread plz.

Frank, I played music for years, I put down the instruments for a year or 2 from time to time, when I pick them up again, I remember how to play, but I have to get my body used to it again, otherwise I end up with CT syndrome or tendonitis if I just try to rip right into it again.

We probably learned music differently, I learned by ear, so music comes naturally when I pick up any instrument, I can't really play any songs note-for-note, yet I can pretty much seamlessly play along in key with practically any music by ear.

So, I think that it's not just that easy to " download a new file " when the talents are learned, stored and recalled in ways that differ greatly from person to person.

Maybe they will work out the subtle nuances, but I think it will not be as easy as what we secretly hope for.


Sorry the technology may not be as good as you expect it to be! I suggest you get a degree and invent it yourself!
Isaacsname
5 / 5 (8) Dec 03, 2011
I don't care... frankly,... if it's good or bad or badass or not.

I'm not against anybody trying these things at all, you have me all wrong, I'm all for transhumanism, technology is just an extension of nature, an emergent property of humanity, just like we are an emergent property of the universe, there's nothing wrong with that.

...degree ?....to invent something ?

Hahahaha.....it's good to know you have a sense of humor !!

FrankHerbert
3 / 5 (114) Dec 03, 2011
I'm all for transhumanism, technology is just an extension of nature, an emergent property of humanity, just like we are an emergent property of the universe, there's nothing wrong with that.


Anyone who recognizes this should receive praise. Congratulations on "getting it."
gollygosh
1 / 5 (2) Dec 04, 2011
Try googling - heaven or hell it's your choice -, written 10 years ago by an unemployed guy from the UK. Considering the time it was written and the endorsements the guy got, it is an amazing read, It is all about the future we are all about to face. I read it 10 years ago and the author did an amazing job predicting the future we are all now living in and are about to collide with, (don't worry it's free).
gollygosh
1 / 5 (2) Dec 04, 2011
Also check out page 81 of the book mentioned in the above comment - The Macroscopic Neural Network - considering the education the author did not receive, this is remarkably like the lecture in the first video in some ways - but it was said 10 years ago.
Eikka
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 04, 2011
The problem is that they'll probably get it wrong, and the new substrate for the mind doesn't actually reproduce the functions of the original down to the T.

But because of the behaviourist argument of AI, what looks like a duck is a duck, so the machine only has to appear intelligent - and it's much easier to create a machine that appears intelligent than creating a machine that is intelligent when you don't know what intelligence is or what it requires to function.

Any mind "uploaded" into such a machine essentially turns into a recording that says it is intelligent, but is only repeating a very complicated pattern. Assuming that the original brain is destroyed in the process, it would be like drowning yourself in formaldehyde in order to "live" forever.

Noumenon
3.3 / 5 (87) Dec 04, 2011
Abuse of comment rules:

FrankHerbert, uses the following screen names to rate multiple one's, and rates himself multiple  5's.

Libtard | ryggesogn3 | gregor2 | CManhole82 | DenseAetherTheory | Pirouline | PetiteAmerican PaoloIlTipoBasso | Fagamemnon
Noumenon
3.5 / 5 (80) Dec 04, 2011
"Orac" is another non-commenting troll puppet.
Nerdyguy
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 04, 2011
Abuse of comment rules:

FrankHerbert, uses the following screen names to rate multiple one's, and rates himself multiple 5's.

Libtard | ryggesogn3 | gregor2 | CManhole82 | DenseAetherTheory | Pirouline | PetiteAmerican PaoloIlTipoBasso | Fagamemnon


I think you missed a few in addition to those. One sick puppy, no matter how many times he copies himself. And to use slightly variations of other users' names is beyond sad.
FrankHerbert
2.7 / 5 (95) Dec 04, 2011
Spending all day spreading disinformation around this site (and probably voting yourself down with all those names just to claim I did it) doesn't reflect well upon your maturity. Since you seem to be such an expert, what mental age would you ascribe to your actions here? 12-13? I don't know; I don't usually engage in such inanities.
Noumenon
3.6 / 5 (75) Dec 04, 2011
You're a poor liar. You already admitted to the first set of screen names, you sad little man.

As soon as you saw what I posted above I receive another set of one ratings. Clearly it's you.

Typical limp wrist liberal, can't win a debate on the merits of reason, so you resort to dishonesty.

You should have been banned long ago, but the mods are asleep.
FrankHerbert
2.9 / 5 (105) Dec 04, 2011
You've admitted to all manner of sophistry on this site yet you still demand we take you seriously.

Get a clue.

Since the expert on maturity (noumenon) is here, what mental age would you ascribe to NerdyGuy for his actions?
Noumenon
3.6 / 5 (75) Dec 04, 2011
You've admitted to all manner of sophistry on this site yet you still demand we take you seriously.

Get a clue.

Since the expert on maturity (noumenon) is here, what mental age would you ascribe to NerdyGuy for his actions?


What are you referring to? You fail to understand that ratings mean zero wrt who is has a valid opinion or not.
Nerdyguy
1.3 / 5 (13) Dec 05, 2011
Since the expert on maturity (noumenon) is here, what mental age would you ascribe to NerdyGuy for his actions?


Just so we're all clear (yeah, yeah, I know we rarely get anything "clear" from you Frank, but please try) which "actions" are you referring to above?

My guess, just for fun: my constant mockery of you. lmao
bluehigh
1 / 5 (2) Dec 05, 2011
what mental age would you ascribe to NerdyGuy for his actions?


How to rate a retard like Nerdyguy with a mental age?

bluehigh
1 / 5 (2) Dec 05, 2011
You're a poor liar.
- Noumenon

What a sick mind you have matey. In fact Noumenon, you seem to have many unverifiable opinions and often admit to being wrong. Are you sure you are not the liar? Maybe you have a small dick and trying to compensate?
bluehigh
1 / 5 (2) Dec 05, 2011
Oh, just in case you wonder. I reckon you are all awesome, though if we are going to play in the gutter then I'm gonna play too.

Ahhh, the beautiful words .. tolerance, understanding, patience, empathy - soft science. Did you forget while crunching the numbers?
Nerdyguy
1.6 / 5 (13) Dec 05, 2011
You're a poor liar.
- Noumenon

What a sick mind you have matey. In fact Noumenon, you seem to have many unverifiable opinions and often admit to being wrong. Are you sure you are not the liar? Maybe you have a small dick and trying to compensate?


It must be tough to be so filled with hate and rage that you can actually project your anger onto an anonymous stranger via a website comment section.

But look, there's good news: there are both pills and other medical options, like behavioral therapy, which can help with this.
LivaN
5 / 5 (1) Dec 05, 2011
Eikka
The problem is that they'll probably get it wrong, and the new substrate for the mind doesn't actually reproduce the functions of the original down to the T.

Which is why extensive analysis and testing will be preformed. In any case, even if there is a small deviation that doesn't mean the machine is not self aware.

Eikka
but is only repeating a very complicated pattern.

I don't see your point. A repeated pattern will be easily identified, especially when we can directly compare the machine neural interaction with the organic one.
Noumenon
2.9 / 5 (105) Dec 05, 2011
You're a poor liar.
- Noumenon

What a sick mind you have matey. In fact Noumenon, you seem to have many unverifiable opinions and often admit to being wrong. Are you sure you are not the liar? Maybe you have a small dick and trying to compensate?


A sick mind?! How so?

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