cb(3P): New particle at the Large Hadron Collider discovered by ATLAS experiment

Dec 22, 2011

(PhysOrg.com) -- Researchers from the University of Birmingham and Lancaster University, analysing data taken by the ATLAS experiment, have been at the centre of what is believed to be the first clear observation of a new particle at the Large Hadron Collider. The research is published today on the online repository arXiv.

The particle, the cb(3P) [pronounced kye-bee three P], is a new way of combining a beauty quark and its so that they bind together. Like the more famous Higgs particle, the cb(3P) is a boson. However, whereas the Higgs is not made up of smaller , the cb(3P) combines two very heavy objects via the same ‘strong force’ which holds the atomic nucleus together.

Andy Chisholm, a PhD student from the University of Birmingham who worked on the analysis said: ‘Analysing the billions of particle collisions at the LHC is fascinating. There are potentially all kinds of interesting things buried in the data, and we were lucky to look in the right place at the right time.’

‘The cb(3P) is a particle that was predicted by many theorists, but was not observed at previous experiments, such as in my previous work on the D-Zero experiment in Chicago,’ continued Dr James Walder, a Lancaster research associate who worked on the analysis.

Dr Miriam Watson, a research fellow working in the Birmingham group observed: ‘The lighter partners of the cb(3P) were observed around 25 years ago. Our new measurements are a great way to test theoretical calculations of the forces that act on fundamental particles, and will move us a step closer to understanding how the universe is held together.’

Professor Roger Jones, Head of the Lancaster ATLAS group said: "While people are rightly interested in the Higgs boson, which we believe gives particles their mass and may have started to reveal itself, a lot of the mass of everyday objects comes from the strong interaction we are investigating using the cb."

Explore further: Superconducting circuits, simplified

More information: The paper is published here at arxiv.org/abs/1112.5154

Provided by University of Birmingham

4.5 /5 (33 votes)

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User comments : 33

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Michelle_McDonald
5 / 5 (2) Dec 22, 2011
Very exciting :)
Turritopsis
1 / 5 (3) Dec 22, 2011
Like the more famous Higgs particle, the cb(3P) is a boson.


This is a composite particle (a hadron) made of two quarks (meson), a bottom and antibottom quark pair.

How is it a boson?
Turritopsis
4 / 5 (8) Dec 22, 2011
Plus 1/2 spin minus 1/2 spin equals 0 spin. Half integers of quarks gone, boson created.

Thanks for the clarification brain.
rawa1
2.2 / 5 (10) Dec 22, 2011
It has integer spin, albeit it's just assumption of theory, not the experimental fact. In dense environment of atom nuclei the mesons play a role of neutral particles, but outside of it they would behave like short-living fermions. Analogously quantum vortices play a role of bosons inside of thin films of superconductors (open loop strings), in bulk state they behave rather like fermions (closed loop strings).
rawa1
1.4 / 5 (11) Dec 22, 2011
I can give you a socioeconomical analogy: in sparse primitive (communal) society the money had an explicit material character (the people just exchanged goods in the role of money), inside of more evolved society the money are gradually virtualized into metal coins, papers bills or even (nearly) virtual digital operations. Therefore the money are effectively bosonized there.
Turritopsis
1 / 5 (1) Dec 22, 2011
Very good analogy Rawa. Money is a value carrier just as a boson is a force carrier.
krundoloss
1 / 5 (2) Dec 22, 2011
Wrong. All wrong. They are all self contained Universes!
Turritopsis
1.8 / 5 (5) Dec 22, 2011
Technically it is not a boson though. A boson is an elementary indivisible particle. This is a composite particle made up of 2 seperate elementary particles.

A bottom quark and a bottom antiquark in this case. The 2 collectively cancel each other out spin wise.

Mesons always have negative 1 0 or positive 1 for their integer spin value as it deals with 2 1/2 spins.

I disagree with labeling composite particles as bosons, maybe "boson like".
rawa1
1 / 5 (7) Dec 22, 2011
I disagree with labelling composite particles as bosons, maybe "boson like".
We could call it a Cooper pair made of quarks inside of nuclear superfluid instead of electrons with opposite spin inside of superconductor. Such a pair spreads trough its environment without dissipation of energy, i.e. like the boson. These bosons are held together with Higgs mechanism (Yukawa force) instead of phonon coupling.
rawa1
1 / 5 (7) Dec 22, 2011
At the case of atom nuclei the analogous pairing mediated with mesons is responsible for higher binding energy per nucleon at the case of atom nuclei with odd number of nucleons. From the same reason the Thorium is not fissile and we have to treat it with neutron for to make usable fuel from it.

http://www.sjsu.e...7901.gif

The nucleon pairs are floating at the surface of atom nuclei like the Falaco solitons and their coupling is the more pronounced, the smaller the radius of atom nuclei is. Their coupling strength is therefore energy (density) dependent. It explains, why we can observe these bosons just at the case of more massive quarks (charmonium, botommium): the lightweight quarks are too unstable for being able to form observable boson pairs. The top quarks are forming quarkonia readily.
rawa1
1 / 5 (7) Dec 22, 2011
In AWT the rest mass/energy of object is best defined just at the certain areas of energy density scale: atom nuclei and neutron stars. The smaller particles than the nucleons are poorly defined and they're forming many excited energy states of the different rest mass - pretty well like the electrons around atoms. It makes the identification of quarkonium difficult - you should seek the energy spectrum of symmetric dimuon decay events of upslilon mesons inside of charm quarks jets. The chi_b(3P) is the third excited state of the bottomium and its identification is apparently a byproduct of the Higgs search at the LHC.
bewertow
3.7 / 5 (3) Dec 22, 2011
Like the more famous Higgs particle, the cb(3P) is a boson.


This is a composite particle (a hadron) made of two quarks (meson), a bottom and antibottom quark pair.

How is it a boson?


you're a huge n00b. A boson is just a particle whose wavefunction is symmetric. Fermions have antisymmetric wave functions. That's the difference.
jsdarkdestruction
2.5 / 5 (2) Dec 23, 2011
"A bottom quark and a bottom antiquark in this case."

"The particle, the cb(3P) [pronounced kye-bee three P], is a new way of combining a beauty quark and its antiquark".
Just pointing that out.
rawa1
1 / 5 (6) Dec 23, 2011
you're a huge n00b. A boson is just a particle whose wavefunction is symmetric.
The ability to google up one of possible answers doesn't make alpha-male from you. Actually, if the wave function is unobservable, it doesn't make any observable difference between bosons and fermions. Try to propose some testable way, how to distinguish boson from fermion.
Turritopsis
1 / 5 (1) Dec 23, 2011

To me calling a meson a boson is like calling the Wplus and Wminus bosons a Z boson. The Wplus and Wminus bosons collectively have a charge of 0, the Z boson has a charge of 0, therefore the 2 W bosons are a Z boson.

Same type of reasoning. Neglecting quantum states. The difference being that the mesons have a strong interaction while the Wplus and minus have the electroweak.

2 identical photons can occupy the same quantum state.

Have 2 mesons been observed in the same quantum state?

Like 2 mesons interacting superimposed? 4 quark hadron? Tetraquark?

rawa1
1 / 5 (5) Dec 23, 2011
The Wplus and Wminus bosons collectively have a charge of 0, the Z boson has a charge of 0, therefore the 2 W bosons are a Z boson.
The trick is, the atom nuclei is fermion by itself, so that every hadron in it is behaving like lepton, leptons are behaving in it like bosons and bosons like tachyons. The relations between particles inside of strongly positively curved space-times cannot be transferred outside of it into flat space-time.

http://www.aether...oson.gif
Turritopsis
1.3 / 5 (4) Dec 23, 2011
Then again, such as is the case in blackholes, infinite density causes the sharing of quantum states. I wouldn't disagree with calling a blackhole a boson.

Quarks seem to be separately interacting entities, even in extremely dense hot states (such as quark-gluon soup) they keep seperate from other quarks, they resist the gluons which bind them creating distance which creates dimensions.
rawa1
1 / 5 (3) Dec 23, 2011
I wouldn't disagree with calling a blackhole a boson.
I'd disagree, because the fundamental property of bosons is, they cannot stay at rest (this is just the answer of question, which I asked above the bewertow). Just because their wave function isn't antisymmetric, it tends to travel in one direction. But most of black holes are supposed to sit at rest quietly.
Turritopsis
1 / 5 (2) Dec 23, 2011
Point taken Rawa. We cant with certainty say that a photon isnt a composite particle as well.

It is hard to exclude all possible scenarios as it would require inspection at infinite scales of that singular elementary boson. I'm referring to what krundoloss said Rawa. Lets say that a photon is scale 1. Then the photon divided in half is scale 2.

To exclude possible photonic composition you'd have to investigate to scale infinity. You'd have to check ranges all the way down to an infinite fraction of that photon to exclude that the photon is made up of half-integer spin particles.

So I think you may be right Rawa. All bosons could potentially be composed of fermions.

Just a point though. The Higgs boson is a spin 0 particle. It rests quite comfortably, that is if the Higgs interaction is real.
rawa1
1 / 5 (4) Dec 23, 2011
We cant with certainty say that a photon isn't a composite particle as well.
IMO the photon may look something like this http://www.aether...ring.gif
It's essentially vortex ring composed of fluffy density fluctuations of vacuum. The photons inside of boson condensates are slowed down significantly, so you can observe them live.
The Higgs boson is a spin 0 particle. It rests quite comfortably
It couldn't mediate the Yukawa interaction, if it would sit at rest after then. In gauge theory (which SM undeniably is) all the bosons are introduced for explanation of gauge interactions.
Turritopsis
1 / 5 (2) Dec 23, 2011
The Higgs field is the scalar portion of the Yukawa interaction. The Dirac massless fermion energy interacts with the scalar field creating massive charged particles.

Energy gains mass by interacting with the Higgs field.

The Higgs boson has 0 spin. It is always resting. It is the energy around it that is moving.

You could scale it backwards saying that photons are motionless but the Higgs boson is constant at 300,000 km/s but that's pointless.

The field grows because fermions don't want to be together. This is why mesons decay so quick. The Fermions push each other away accelerating the expansion of space.

Quarks get locked in a triplet state. There is something that causes fermion repulsion to seize. In a double state they have dual polarity which shoots them apart (quark1(q1) pushes q2, q2 pushes q1). In a triplet state: q1 pushes q2 into q3, q2 pushes q3 into q1, q3 pushes q1 into q2.

Bound state resulting in a "fermion like" spin of a nucleon.
Osiris1
1 / 5 (1) Dec 23, 2011
Al-Jazeera calls this particle a force carrier. What force?
bewertow
3 / 5 (2) Dec 23, 2011
The ability to google up one of possible answers doesn't make alpha-male from you. Actually, if the wave function is unobservable, it doesn't make any observable difference between bosons and fermions. Try to propose some testable way, how to distinguish boson from fermion.


I think you're a huge n00b too. You can easily tell the difference between bosons and fermions because their statistical properties differ, which is the result of the particles having either symmetric or antisymmetric wavefunctions.

I think you need to actually study quantum mechanics instead of reading wikipedia and pretending to know what you're talking about.

Callippo
1 / 5 (2) Dec 23, 2011
Al-Jazeera calls this particle a force carrier. What force?
A Yukawa force. This particle is essentially a Yukawa meson. It's a kind of strong nuclear force, just generalized to higher particle generation. At their rest state the atom nuclei contain only quarks and mesons (pions) of most lightweight particle generation. The higher particle generations do exist only for brief moment of time, when two or more nuclei collide or inside of very dense stars (so called the quark stars, which are similar to black holes).
Callippo
1 / 5 (2) Dec 23, 2011
You can easily tell the difference between bosons and fermions because their statistical properties differ, which is the result of the particles having either symmetric or antisymmetric wavefunctions.
Wave function is unobservable, so how they're differ? Am I boson or fermion? How you can recognize it?
Tangent2
2.3 / 5 (3) Dec 24, 2011
When did this website become all about calling each other n00b? Let's not make it personal, facts speak louder than emotions.

This is very exciting news indeed.. I can't wait to see what will come of it.
Vendicar_Decarian
2.6 / 5 (5) Dec 24, 2011
"Wave function is unobservable, so how they're differ? Am I boson or fermion?" - Callippo

You are a fermion if you can't occupy the same quantum state as another fermion, a Boson if you can.

Electrons for example are fermions and must adopt complimentary spin in order for their other quantum numbers to match.

On the other hand, a photon - which is a boson can sit right on top of another photon.
Vendicar_Decarian
1 / 5 (3) Dec 24, 2011
"Al-Jazeera calls this particle a force carrier. What force?"

Electro-weak
Callippo
1 / 5 (1) Dec 24, 2011
Nope, it's the strong interaction, i.e. color force.
gwrede
2 / 5 (5) Dec 24, 2011
Oh boy, if you take the average ratings of the posts made here, the results would only warrant a face-palm. Truly embarrassing.

Either the people who consistently score a 1 out of 5 for their posts should face the mirror and abstain from polluting the Internet and become read-only members, or PhysOrg should automatically erase their accounts.

But, probably, these posters are too stupid to understand what really is wrong with their posts. Heck, I can even cope with Omaturm's craziness, but sheer stupidity is what definitely does not mix with science. Geez!!!!!!!!
Callippo
1 / 5 (2) Dec 24, 2011
Oh boy, if you take the average ratings of the posts made here, the results would only warrant a face-palm. Truly embarrassing.
I'm downvoted with voting trolls only. It's always the very same accounts (MorituriMax, MarkyMark, Eoprime, orac) and probably the same person. If you want, I can downvote your last thirty posts from various browsers without problem. Everyone can do it with the same difficulty.

http://www.aether...orac.gif

Until some arguments appear, I can consider such way of voting abuse of voting system here with no factual relevance.
A_Paradox
5 / 5 (1) Dec 27, 2011
gwrede, just hit the filter button! Then use the slider if necessary, and you can always hit the "show" link. This Xmas is the first time I have started filtering automatically. I blame Santa!
Eric_B
1 / 5 (1) Dec 27, 2011
"krundoloss
Dec 22, 2011
Wrong. All wrong. They are all self contained Universes!"

OMG!!! I just realized these experiments are killing and making extinct a quintillion-quintillion organisms on a gajillion worlds that haven't even had a chance to become members in the Galactic Federation! Abomination and travesty!!!