Detailed view of a crucial enzymatic complex revealed

November 7, 2011
Detailed view of a crucial enzymatic complex revealed
Model of the large subunit of the ribosome from a higher organism (Photograph: Katharina Bohm, Felix Voigts-Hoffmann / ETH Z├╝rich)

Researchers led by ETH professor Nenad Ban have now completed the three-dimensional structure of the ribosome from a higher organism. This structure will increase the understanding of this cellular “protein factory” and facilitate the development of novel drugs.

The machinery that reads genetic information within a cell and translates it into corresponding proteins, the so-called , is among the most complex cellular enzymes known in biology. It has been studied for decades. Ten years ago, scientists have solved the first three-dimensional of this complex from prokaryotes (ie. bacteria). They were awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009.

In higher such as fungi, plants and animals (so-called eukaryotes), the ribosome is even more complex than in bacteria. Researchers led by Nenad Ban, professor at the Institute for Molecular Biology and Biophysics at ETH Zurich have now solved the three-dimensional structure of the larger of two ribosomal subunits from a higher organism, the single-celled ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. This ribosome is akin to the ones of multi-cellular organisms such as humans. The scientists published their work today in the magazine Science. Researchers of the same group at ETH Zurich had already published the structure of the smaller ribosomal subunit of the ciliate earlier this year.

Towards a better understanding of the ribosomal function

Comparing the ribosomal structures of both, bacteria and higher organisms, will enable scientists to develop novel specific pharmaceutical compounds against pathogens and pests. Among these could be antibiotics and fungicides. Furthermore, the findings could lead to the development of novel antiviral drugs since many viruses need to bind to and manipulate the ribosomes of their host cells in order to replicate.

The newly revealed structure could furthermore help to better understand the initiation of protein synthesis and to gain insights into the evolutionary development of the ribosomes of higher organisms.

Ribosomes of higher organisms have been a major focus at the laboratory of Prof. Ban since 2001. The work of the scientists at ETH Zurich was supported by the National Centre of Excellence in Research (NCCR) in Structural Biology of the Swiss National Science Foundation. Data used for structure determination was collected at the Swiss Light Source.

Explore further: Biologists probe the machinery of cellular protein factories

More information: Klinge S, Voigts-Hoffmann F, Leibundgut M, Arpagaus S, Ban N: Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic 60S Ribosomal Subunit in Complex with Initiation Factor 6. Science.

Related Stories

Biologists probe the machinery of cellular protein factories

September 13, 2006

Proteins of all sizes and shapes do most of the work in living cells, and the DNA sequences in genes spell out the instructions for making those proteins. The crucial job of reading the genetic instructions and synthesizing ...

The eukaryotic ribosome unveils its structure

December 1, 2010

One year after the Nobel Prize in chemistry was awarded for the discovery of the bacterial ribosome's atomic structure, French researchers from the Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire have determined ...

Recommended for you

Researchers design first artificial ribosome

July 29, 2015

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University have engineered a tethered ribosome that works nearly as well as the authentic cellular component, or organelle, that produces all the proteins ...

Studies reveal details of error correction in cell division

July 29, 2015

Cell biologists led by Thomas Maresca at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with collaborators elsewhere, report an advance in understanding the workings of an error correction mechanism that helps cells detect and ...

Researchers discover new type of mycovirus

July 29, 2015

Researchers, led by Dr Robert Coutts, Leverhulme Research Fellow from the School of Life and Medical Sciences at the University of Hertfordshire, and Dr Ioly Kotta-Loizou, Research Associate at Imperial College, have discovered ...

Stressed out plants send animal-like signals

July 29, 2015

University of Adelaide research has shown for the first time that, despite not having a nervous system, plants use signals normally associated with animals when they encounter stress.

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.