Earth is having a bad acid trip, study finds

Oct 03, 2011 By Russell McLendon

Earth may be overdosing on acid - not the "turn on, tune in, drop out" kind, but the "kill fish, kill coral, kill crops" kind. And it's shaping up to be a very bad trip.

The problem isn't just or , either: pH levels are plummeting all over the planet, according to a new study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Virginia. The origin of all this acidity, the researchers report, is humanity's growing use of natural resources such as coal, metal ores and nitrogen.

Scientists have long known that certain chemicals can acidify soil and water when released en masse into the environment; and contribute to acid rain, for example, while carbon dioxide is widely blamed for causing ocean acidification.

In their new study, though, the USGS and UVA researchers report that a worldwide acid wash is now being fueled by a variety of human activities, namely "the mining and burning of coal, the mining and smelting of metal ores, and the use of ." This is dramatically reducing pH levels not just in soil and , they report, but also in streams, rivers, lakes and even the air.

Each of these activities contributes to rising acidity in its own way, the study's authors explain. Much of the from coal burning are absorbed by , for instance, producing carbonic acid that wreaks havoc with . SO2 from both coal burning and metal smelting leads to acid rain, which in turn acidifies soil and freshwater and can directly kill plants. Drainage from also boosts acidity in soil, freshwater and groundwater, while nitrogen added to farmland can reduce soil pH over time, limiting its ability to sustain crops.

In a recent press release, USGS scientist and project leader Karen Rice calls the study the first of its kind, and says it can help other scientists and policy makers tackle the planet's acid problem. "We believe this study is the first attempt to assess all of the major human activities that are making Earth more acidic," she says. "We hope others will use this as a starting point for making scientific and management progress to preserve the atmosphere, waters and soils that support human life."

The U.S. and other developed nations took steps years ago to address acid rain, the researchers point out, and environmental regulations have also improved mining and smelting practices. But acidic runoff remains an issue in many areas where intensive mining takes place, even in wealthy countries, and ocean acidification from CO2 is a growing global issue. Plus, as UVA geochemist Janet Herman explains, fast-developing nations in Asia, Africa and South America are actually expanding their reliance on coal, metals, nitrogen and other acidifying resources.

"The low of streams in coal regions of the eastern United States were a major environmental concern 50 years ago," Herman says in the press release. "Changes in mining practices as well as shifting location of production brought about improvements in water quality in Appalachia. In contrast, exploitation of coal has grown in China, where the same environmental protections are not in place."

The researchers created a set of world maps showing coal use, nutrient consumption, copper production and metal smelting on a country-by-country basis, and then factored in things like population forecasts, technological development and regulatory trends. This let them predict, for example, how rapid population growth in some African countries will likely drive up the use of nitrogen fertilizers to grow more food - thus acidifying soil and freshwater in places that haven't faced such issues before.

"Looking at these maps can help identify where the current hotspots are for producing acidity," Rice says. "The population increase map can help guide policymakers on possible future trends and areas to watch for the development of new hotspots."

The study, titled "Acidification of Earth: An Assessment Across Mechanisms and Scales," was published in the journal Applied Geochemistry.

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3432682
1.8 / 5 (12) Oct 03, 2011
This is all baloney. CO2 levels both in the sea and the atmosphere has been much higher in the past than today. If there were warming, CO2 would be driven out of the seas. But even if CO2 increased greatly in the sea, the seas are full of limestone. Think Tums. Anti-acid. The seas are base, not acid. Even dumping in huge amounts of acid could do little but make the sea slightly less base. Seawater pH is 7.5 to 8.4. Sea plants and animals can flourish within a tremendous range. This entire topic is mere assertions of disaster without any plausible scenario for realization. Learn a little chemisty and geo-history and relax.
sams
4.4 / 5 (7) Oct 03, 2011
See this brief from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory published in Nature:

http://pangea.sta...20pH.pdf

The key is how rapidly CO2 increases versus the time it takes for the ocean to buffer it.
LuckyExplorer
3 / 5 (2) Oct 04, 2011
I think I've heard about that more than 25 years ago...

... some halfhearted measures were taken...

the most affected eco systems died and some recovered, and we forgot the problem.

Let's begin the game anew...

@3432682:
You are right - nature will change and earth will stay alive...
... but different to our existing world.

All of you who tell us to ignore such findings are wrong, because you are not looking at the socio-economic aspects and you ignore the probable problems for our huge population
Isaacsname
not rated yet Oct 04, 2011
Big sinkholes popping up on a regular basis....Karst processes. Idk, hard to tell if there's just more people around to witness the same rate of sinkhole creation, or actually more sinkholes. This article shys away from the fact we have lost massive watersheds, which tends to funnel water in larger amounts leading to ..yada, yada

It's not unreasonable to start examining the effects of 6 billion people living on one rock. Our oceans are full of garbage, our planet is surrounded by a Pigpen-like cloud of garbage, our minds are full of garbage, ..something has to give.
rubberman
4.2 / 5 (5) Oct 04, 2011
"This is all baloney"

Idiot. If you were to take the entire Inuit population that has lived in the artic for 1000 years and move them towards the equator at a pace of a mile a day, they could adapt and most would thrive. There would still be a signifigant number of them by the time they arrived. If you put them on a plane in January and drop them off in the congo 7 hours later, how many do you think would still be around in a year? It's the pace of the change, not the final level that is the problem. Were talking hundreds of millions of years versus just hundreds. So dumping huge amounts of acid in the oceans and making them "slightly less base" is still devastating to the organisms that are used to their current living conditions.
"Think tums". Drop your effen tums in a goldfish bowl and see what happens....