Archaeopteryx and the dinosaur-bird family tree

Sep 15, 2011
The first fossil skeleton specimen of Archaeopteryx was uncovered in 1861 and is looked after at the Natural History Museum. It shows a creature with both bird and dinosaur features.

The magpie-sized Archaeopteryx had bird and dinosaur features and helped show that birds evolved from dinosaurs. However, recent research in the journal Nature questions its position in the dinosaur-bird family tree.

Scientists know evolved from dinosaurs because many fossils have been found of ancient animals with both bird and dinosaur , including the famous that lived 147 million years ago.

Archaeopteryx had a feathered tail and with a flight feather arrangement just like modern birds. But it also had a long bony tail, , and 3 ending in claws, like dinosaurs. 

The first Archaeopteryx skeleton was uncovered in 1861 in Solnhofen, Germany, and is looked after at the Natural History Museum. It provided the first evidence that helped demonstrate that modern birds descended from small meat-eating dinosaurs.

Along with researchers from all over the world, Museum scientists have studied the specimen ever since, and they have been able to reveal that it had hearing like an emu and a brain like a chicken.

Still a bird?

No other fossils of bird-like creatures older than Archaeopteryx were known at the time, or for most of the time since this early discovery. So it became established as the earliest known bird. But is this still so?

Since the discovery of Archaeopteryx, many more fossils with combined dinosaur and bird features have been uncovered, especially in the last 10 years (with only 9 other Archaeopteryx finds over the last 150 years).

In June, scientists revealed a new species from China that they say shows Archaeopteryx was not a bird at all.

Xing Xu from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, in Beijing, and colleagues, identified the feathered and chicken-sized Xiaotingia zhengi. It was very similar to Archaeopteryx, sharing features such as long and robust forelimbs, which the team says puts them together in the dinosaur group rather than with birds.

Dr. Paul Barrett, Museum dinosaur expert says, "The June research shows just how fine the line between birds and non-avian dinosaurs really is."

Species that have a mixture of features, and are hard to place in one group or another, are known as transitional forms, sometimes incorrectly called a ‘missing link’. Their fossils provide a record of significant steps in the evolution of new features.

Although Archaeopteryx and X. zhengi had some bird-like features, the researchers say they had more features that put them in the group Deinonychosauria, which includes Microraptor and Velociraptor, rather than in the bird group Avialae.

So, does the whole bird family tree need re-arranging? 

Not according to Barrett. "Xiaotingia does not necessitate a major re-writing of early bird evolution, but shows that the evolution of many of the detailed anatomical features that changed during the origin of birds may have been slightly more complex than previously thought."

Archaeopteryx and the dinosaur-bird family tree
Painting of how Archaeopteryx may have looked 147 million years ago. Credit: John Sibbick / Natural History Museum

Dr. Angela Milner, Museum dinosaur expert comments. "This recent research in no way diminishes the scientific and historical importance of Archaeopteryx.

"Thomas Henry Huxley [pioneering biologist and educator] pointed out in 1868 that it was the first fossil to provide a snapshot of evolution in action between two major groups, dinosaurs and birds, and a clear demonstration that birds are the descendents of small meat-eating dinosaurs.

Another bird-like branch?

If Archaeopteryx is not a direct ancestor of birds, why does it have bird-like features and where does it sit in relation to the transition of dinosaurs to birds?

Archaeopteryx could be on another branch of the dinosaur with bird-like feathers and skeletal features evolving in another closely related dinosaur group, suggests Barrett.

"Maybe Archaeopteryx wasn't on the direct ancestral line to birds, but was part of an early experimentation in how to build a bird-like body."

Overall bird origin picture

The overall picture of birds descending from meat-eating dinosaurs is firmly established. Now scientists need to rearrange the details of the early stages in the bird evolutionary tree.

Barrett adds, "As the authors of the June paper note, the evidence suggesting that Archaeopteryx is not a bird is fairly equivocal and new analyses or new animals could very easily change this picture.

"In reality what we now have are a set of animals incredibly close to bird origin – unsurprisingly these are very similar to each other, to birds and to other small meat-eating dinosaurs. As they are so similar, it becomes exceptionally difficult to disentangle their relationships accurately."

Milner concludes, "The fact that Archaeopteryx may represent one of many early flying experiments rather than being the direct ancestor of is no surprise at all.

"It is only now that Archaeopteryx can be assessed in the context of all the recent discoveries in China which provide so much more information."

Explore further: Seeing dinosaur feathers in a new light

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Famed fossil isn't a bird after all, analysis says

Jul 27, 2011

(AP) -- One of the world's most famous fossil creatures, widely considered the earliest known bird, is getting a rude present on the 150th birthday of its discovery: A new analysis suggests it isn't a bird ...

Ancient Birds Flew On All-Fours

Sep 26, 2006

The earliest known ancestor of modern-day birds took to the skies by gliding from trees using primitive feathered wings on their arms and legs, according to new research by a University of Calgary paleontologist. In a paper ...

Feathers too weak for early bird flight

May 13, 2010

(PhysOrg.com) -- The evolution of flight took longer than previously thought with the ancestors of modern birds “rubbish” at flying, if they flew at all, according to a Manchester scientist.

Inside the First Bird, Surprising Signs of a Dinosaur

Oct 08, 2009

(PhysOrg.com) -- The raptor-like Archaeopteryx has long been viewed as the archetypal first bird, but new research reveals that it was actually a lot less “bird-like” than scientists had believed.

Recommended for you

Seeing dinosaur feathers in a new light

3 hours ago

Why were dinosaurs covered in a cloak of feathers long before the early bird species Archaeopteryx first attempted flight? Researchers from the University of Bonn and the University of Göttingen attempt ...

Mexico archaeologists explore Teotihuacan tunnel (Update)

18 hours ago

A yearslong exploration of a tunnel sealed almost 2,000 years ago at the ancient city of Teotihuacan yielded thousands of relics and the discovery of three chambers that could hold more important finds, Mexican ...

Peruvian dig reveals sacrificial mystery

Oct 29, 2014

Tulane University physical anthropologist John Verano has spent summers in Peru for the last 30 years, digging for ancient bones and solving their secrets. But his most recent work focuses on a unique archeological ...

Phaistos Disk may be prayer to mother goddess

Oct 27, 2014

Ancient writing systems and their meanings absorb scientists who dedicate years of work to deciphering and sorting through arguments to determine the true meaning and purpose of writings. The latest news ...

User comments : 1

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

gimpypoet
not rated yet Sep 16, 2011
"Maybe Archaeopteryx wasn't on the direct ancestral line to birds, but was part of an early experimentation in how to build a bird-like body."
who conducted these experiments? god or the aliens early man considered gods? if it was "God" were these his "mistakes"?
couldn't help but to take a cheap shot.

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.