The central region of the Milky Way

Aug 15, 2011
A false-color composite image of the central 50 light-years of the Milky Way as seen for the first time in the entirely of the far infrared. Many of the previously-known structures in the region are labeled; the location of the black hole is labeled "SagA*," and the inner donut as "CND." Colder material is shown in red; warmer (but still relatively cold) in blue. Credit: NASA; ESA and M. Etxaluze

(PhysOrg.com) -- The center of our Milky Way galaxy is about 27,000 light-years away in the direction of the constellation of Sagittarius. At the very center of the galaxy lies a black hole whose mass is about four million solar masses. Around it is a donut-shaped structure about eight light-years across that rings the inner volume of neutral gas and an estimated thousands of individual stars. Around that, stretching out to 700 light-years, is a dense molecular zone of activity, unique to the galaxy, with massive star forming clusters of luminous stars, giant molecular clouds, and many more, poorly understood regions as well.

There is so much obscuring dust between us and this region that visible light is extinguished by factors of over a trillion. Infrared, radio and some X-ray radiation, however, can penetrate the veil, and they have allowed astronomers to develop the picture just outlined. One span of the spectrum of particular interest to astronomers is the four octaves of from the short infrared band (just adjacent to the visible) to the submillimeter. It is precisely in this span that a large fraction of the universe emits most of its radiation – the reason being that ubiquitous, cool dust absorbs starlight (and many other kinds of radiation) from sources and re-radiates it here, in this far-infrared band. The Herschel Space Telescope, launched last year, is a facility able to detect this light.

CfA astronomers Mireya Extaluze, Howard Smith, Volker Tolls, Tony Stark, and Eduardo Gonzalez-Alfonso have used newly archived data from Herschel surveys of the region to publish the first complete far-infrared picture of the inner galaxy. The images reveal arcs, star clusters, and clumps of material, most of them previously known from radio observations, but all now seen in emission in the light of the cool dust they contain. The astronomers model the dust emission, and find that previous observations had been unable to sense a cold but massive component whose temperature is only about 23 degrees above absolute zero. The team also finds that the character of the dust emission varies across the region, and that the total radiant output of the inner donut region alone is two million solar-luminosities. These results mark the beginning, not the end, of a detailed analysis of the various cool, dusty structures found near our galaxy's core.

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User comments : 19

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olek
not rated yet Aug 15, 2011
Tony Stark? Come ooon :)
Royale
not rated yet Aug 15, 2011
LoL. That's exactly what I thought.
SteveL
not rated yet Aug 15, 2011
Heh, his name popped out to me also, and I thought: "An Astronomer?". Just shows the power of mass media to influence our perceptions.
omatumr
1 / 5 (6) Aug 16, 2011
Thanks for the story.

The center of the Milky Way is very active because the central object in galaxies is a giant neutron star - not a black hole - that fragments because of neutron repulsion [1,2] to produce the galaxy of stars.

1."Neutron Repulsion", The APEIRON Journal, in press, 19 pages (2011):

http://arxiv.org/...2.1499v1

2. "Is the Universe Expanding?" The Journal of Cosmology 13, 4187-4190 (2011):

http://journalofc...102.html

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel

ccr5Delta32
5 / 5 (4) Aug 16, 2011
"giant neutron star" at that mass if it's smaller than 13M km ,almost to the orbit of Saturn than is a black hole .If it's larger than we should see it , we don't
bluebeard80
not rated yet Aug 16, 2011
That's SgrA*.
yyz
5 / 5 (8) Aug 16, 2011
"The center of the Milky Way is very active because the central object in galaxies is a giant neutron star"

Oliver, kindly provide a link to ANY relevant observations that conclusively and unequivocally show that Sag-A* is a four million solar mass supermasive "neutron star"[SMNS]. Spectra of a 4 million solar mass SMNS should be quite distinctive when compared to the known spectra of the observed accretion disk. How about a derived black body spectrum of Sag-A*? What is the rate of rotation of this purported SMNS? What precisely is it's spindown rate?

Links to corroborating papers by *independent researchers*(not yourself) would be most appreciated. Even from viXra, APERION press, J. of Cosmology, etc.
yyz
5 / 5 (7) Aug 16, 2011
"the central object in galaxies is a giant neutron star - not a black hole - that fragments because of neutron repulsion [1,2] to produce the galaxy of stars."

Where are the central objects in these galaxies that gave rise to their birth? -

http://www.caelum...89.shtml

http://www.caelum...phod.jpg

http://www.caelum...rcia.jpg

http://ned.ipac.c...261.jpeg

http://www.versch...dium.htm

http://www.versch...dium.htm

I know of plenty of other examples of isolated irregular galaxies with no nearby galaxies. This challenge goes out to Tuxford too, as he advocates galaxy birth by fragmentation (or some such) of a massive *central* object. This has not been observed before in galaxies.

These ideas harken back to Vorontsov-Velyaminov's "gemmation" theories from the early '60's and has long been disproven by many observations.
omatumr
1 / 5 (2) Aug 17, 2011
Fragmentation of the cosmos has been observed and reported, e.g. [1-5].

Black holes are as fictional as the standard solar model of hydrogen-filled stars.

1. W. K. Brown, Astrophys. & Space Sci., 72, 15-31 (1980).
2. W. K. Brown, Astrophys. & Space Sci., 121, 351-355 (1986).
3. W. K. Brown, Astrophys. & Space Sci., 122, 287-298 (1986).
4. W. K. Brown and L. A. Gritzo, Astrophys. & Space Sci., 123, 161-181 (1986).
5. G. A. Harutyunian, Astrophys., 46, 81-91 (2003); Astrofizika, 46, no. 1, 103-118 (2003)
yyz
5 / 5 (5) Aug 17, 2011
"Fragmentation of the cosmos has been observed and reported, e.g. [1-5]."

Oliver, contained within the papers I could freely access, there were no observations of massive central objects fragmenting into galaxies. These papers are theoretical in nature, which you know, and still present as evidence of *observations* of fragmentation into galaxies.

The Brown & Gritzo paper is on the formation of the solar system: http://articles.a...ype=.pdf

The Harutyunian & Brown(1980) papers deal with theory:

http://www.spring...77nq568/
http://articles.a...ype=.pdf

con't
yyz
5 / 5 (6) Aug 17, 2011
con't

The paper by Brown(1986) deals with stellar formation: http://articles.a...ype=.pdf

Brown seems to write in a (peculiar) manner similar to yours, to wit:

"I have formulated a theory of sequential fragmentation based on my theory of solar system formation. The theory is validated using data from an explosive aerosolization experiment."

"This agreement does not validate my solar system formation theory, but it does add support to it and perhaps more importantly, does not falsify it."

So, still no *observations* to support your claims of galaxy formation through fragmentation. Are there any potential observations that would falsify your fragmentation theory?
yyz
5 / 5 (6) Aug 17, 2011
And once again, Oliver, you have ignored my first two questions on your fragmentation theory. Where is the observational evidence for the "supermassive neutron star" Sag-A*?

And how do isolated galaxies with no apparent nucleus form and where is the observational evidence to support that claim?
Ethelred
4.3 / 5 (6) Aug 17, 2011
None of the papers were cited by anyone other than the authors and Oliver. None even hinted that neutron repulsion even exists. None cited Oliver.

Ethelred

SteveL
5 / 5 (4) Aug 17, 2011
"Are there any potential observations that would falsify your fragmentation theory?"

Hundreds? Thousands? I dunno but it's likely way up there.

I'd have to wonder with that amount of mass and the implied gravity well how that central mass would only "fragment" in the first place. For a center mass to be the source for the galactic materials should we not see evidence of galaxy-wide explosions?
Vendicar_Decarian
not rated yet Aug 22, 2011
If only astronomers realized that they can't see the stars.

It's so sad. Isn't it OmaTard?
omatumr
1 / 5 (4) Aug 22, 2011
World leaders and leaders of the science community will continue to lose support if they insist on ignoring experimental evidence of neutron repulsion - the most powerful nuclear force known - in nuclear rest mass data of every nucleus with two or more neutrons [1].

What is, . . . is !

01. Neutron Repulsion, The APEIRON Journal, in press, 19 pages (2011):

http://arxiv.org/...2.1499v1

Ethelred
5 / 5 (5) Aug 23, 2011
What is, . . . is !
What isn't isn't.

What EVIDENCE separates neutron repulsion from the Pauli Exclusion Principle?

What evidence, real evidence not wild assed speculation based on your theory, is there for the Sun having a neutron star within it and and iron mantle so near the surface you claim we can see it in Sun Spots? Keep in mind that the Sun Spots do NOT have large amounts of iron. Indeed they have the traces expected by standard theory.

Please produce evidence that bound neutrons decay.

You think the Universe is eternal and does not expand. Please explain why the sky is dark when it cannot be dark in a eternal non-expanding universe.

What restricted the debris from the Suns alleged supernova to the inner Solar System when ALL supernova throw out debris for light years?

Where does the matter come from if the Sun has blow itself up multiple times over its eternal existence?

Ethelred
SteveL
5 / 5 (3) Aug 23, 2011
What restricted the debris from the Suns alleged supernova to the inner Solar System when ALL supernova throw out debris for light years?

Where does the matter come from if the Sun has blow itself up multiple times over its eternal existence?

Ethelred
Just thinking out loud here... ~300 billion stars in our galaxy and ~300 billion galaxies in the universe. If his therory were accurate, considering the age of the universe we should be seeing stars going supernova nightly like popcorn. In fact it would be hard to see anything else what with all the static and radiation that would cause. Nope, can't be right because it doesn't match the evidence.
yyz
5 / 5 (4) Aug 24, 2011
"Just thinking out loud here... ~300 billion stars in our galaxy and ~300 billion galaxies in the universe. If his therory were accurate, considering the age of the universe we should be seeing stars going supernova nightly like popcorn"

@SteveL, a good point. Considering the vast number of stars from just above brown dwarf mass to the largest stars known, the sky should be ablaze with supernovae in the MWG and all other nearby galaxies should show similar "starburst" activity. Clearly this is not observed. Just the solar neighborhood out to 50ly should be littered with SNR and their prodigious outflows of EM radiation and again this is not observed.

BTW, these recent UT articles are on the number of stars in the MWG & the number of galaxies in our universe:

http://www.univer...lky-way/

http://www.univer...niverse/

Your figures seem reasonable.

Don't know how "truthing" reconciles these facts.