Uncovering the Kingdom of Israel

Jul 05, 2011
Exceptional detective-archaeological work at the first season of archaeological digs at Tel Shikmona, on the southern edge of Israel's city of Haifa, has uncovered the remains of a house dating back to the period of the Kingdom of Israel. The site was excavated about 40 years ago and due to neglect and layers of earth and garbage that piled up over the decades, the historical remains were hidden and little was known about what lay below. Upon re-exposing the structure, archaeologists from the University of Haifa were amazed to find that it had remained well preserved and is in fact the best-preserved "Four-Room House" dating back to that period known today. "We had seen the structure in the old photographs, and were sorry that such a rarely preserved finding had disappeared due to neglect. We were not even sure that we would be able to find it again. It was practically a miracle that we managed to locate and uncover it and that it is still so well preserved," said Dr. Shay Bar and Dr. Michael Eisenberg of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa, who headed the excavation team. Credit: Dr. Shay Bar, courtesy of the University of Haifa

In addition to many findings dating back to the Kingdom of Israel (some 3,000 years ago), remains of a Persian city (2,400 years ago) and a Byzantine town (1,500 years ago) have been exposed at the site. Plans are in place to develop the excavation site as a public archaeology park

Exceptional detective-archaeological work at the first season of archaeological digs at Tel Shikmona, on the southern edge of Israel's city of , has uncovered the remains of a house dating back to the period of the Kingdom of Israel. The site was excavated about 40 years ago and due to neglect and layers of earth and garbage that piled up over the decades, the historical remains were hidden and little was known about what lay below. Upon re-exposing the structure, archaeologists from the University of Haifa were amazed to find that it had remained well preserved and may in fact be the best-preserved "Four-Room House" dating back to that period known today. "We had seen the structure in the old photographs, and were sorry that such a rarely preserved finding had disappeared due to neglect. We were not even sure that we would be able to find it again. It was practically a miracle that we managed to locate and uncover it and that it is still so well preserved," said Dr. Shay Bar and Dr. Michael Eisenberg of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa, who headed the .

Exceptional detective-archaeological work at the first season of archaeological digs at Tel Shikmona, on the southern edge of Israel's city of Haifa, has uncovered the remains of a house dating back to the period of the Kingdom of Israel. Upon re-exposing the structure, archaeologists from the University of Haifa were amazed to find that it had remained well preserved and is in fact the best-preserved "Four-Room House" dating back to that period known today. "We had seen the structure in the old photographs, and were sorry that such a rarely preserved finding had disappeared due to neglect. We were not even sure that we would be able to find it again. It was practically a miracle that we managed to locate and uncover it and that it is still so well preserved," said Dr. Shay Bar and Dr. Michael Eisenberg of the Zinman Institute of Archaeology at the University of Haifa, who headed the excavation team. In addition to many findings dating back to the Kingdom of Israel (some 3,000 years ago), remains of a Persian city (2,400 years ago) and a Byzantine town (1,500 years ago) have been exposed at the site. Credit: Dr. Shay Bar, courtesy of the University of Haifa

Tel Shikmona, on the southern coast of Haifa, Israel, is located in the Shikmona Nature Reserve and National Park, managed by the Israel Nature and Parks Authority. It was excavated in the 1970s by the late Yosef Algavish on behalf of the Municipality of Haifa, when remains of settlement dating from the late (16th century BCE) to the Muslim occupation of the 7th century CE were found. Over the past decades, however, the at Tel Shikmona have been damaged, construction waste has piled up on the site, and off-road vehicles have ploughed over it. University of Haifa researchers began renewed excavations at the site about 6 months ago, sponsored by the Hecht Foundation in partnership with the Municipality of Haifa, as part of a project intended to transform the area into a public archaeological park. The first season is now culminating and with it a number of fascinating findings.

The old photographs of the 1970s excavations show a house dating back to the 8th-9th centuries BCE, which is the period of the Kingdom of Israel. The structure's design is known as a "four-room house", which was the most common design for houses in that era. It is characterized by the functional division of the structure into four living spaces: three positioned vertically and the fourth horizontally. The other four-room houses exposed to date have been found in relatively bad condition.

Detective work based on the photographs led the researchers to estimate the location of the house – and luck was on their side as they located the structure and also found it highly preserved. According to Dr. Bar and Dr. Eisenberg, this finding presents a rare opportunity to study and become familiar with everyday life in the days of the Kingdom of Israel, and after a process of conservation they hope to include the structure in the public archaeological park.

An additional rare finding exposed during the excavations belongs to the Israelite period (11th-8th centuries BCE - the settlement and Kingdom of Israel): a personal seal showing an inscription in Hebrew or Phoenician. The researchers hope that deciphering this inscription will give the answer to whether the settlement of that time was in fact Israelite or Phoenician.

Other findings from that period give evidence of expansive trade with Middle Eastern neighbors. These include relics imported from Cyprus and the coast of Lebanon, which arrived in fine, delicate vessels of high-quality ceramic. Also exposed were remains of purple-colored pitcher shards. The researchers explain that these are likely to be rare cases of preserved dye, which is reinforced by the fact that hundreds of the purple dye-producing mollusc shells were also found at the site.

Earlier in the season, a long section of the eastern side of the tell was exposed, revealing remains of terraced Byzantine structures (4th-7th centuries CE) that were built on the slope. Inside the houses, a number of destroyed mosaic floors and storage rooms were uncovered, while dozens of vessels there survived the ruins and were found whole. Many coins, ornaments, pendants, weapons and glass vessels were also found there, providing evidence of the wealth of the inhabitants. Beneath these Byzantine remains, the archaeologists exposed a structure from the Persian era (4th century BCE) in which an oven, clay loom weights and storage pitchers were found, indicating Persian settlement of the area. At another section of the excavations on the tell, the remains of three stages of settlement from the 11th-8th centuries BCE were found. It seems that at the beginning of that era, settlement in the region was relatively sparse but increased over time, becoming a prosperous, fortified city by the first century BCE.

In the course of these excavations, residents of the neighborhoods near Shikmona took an active part in the digs, and the excavating team arranged a special tour and hands-on experience at the site for a group of special needs children.

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EWH
4 / 5 (4) Jul 05, 2011
Was it really necessary to repeat the long first paragraph three times? And though the article makes a point of repeating the phase "Kingdom of Israel" six times, there is nothing tying this site to that supposed kingdom. In fact, there is no clear archaeological evidence that the Israel existed except in the latest part of the period described, and certainly no good evidence that it was anything like the biblical descriptions that the propaganda phrase "Kingdom of Israel" is meant to evoke.

They can't tell Hebrew from Phoenician on the seal? Really? And the murex shells and purple dye aren't a bit of a clue? That alone shifts the odds at least 10-1 in favor of it being a Phoenician site. They have all these artifacts from the period, from all over the region, yet they can't determine if they are Hebrew or Phoenician? The Hebrews weren't great traders then, the Phoenicians were. (Or perhaps they are admitting that there really is no identifiable Hebrew style?)
Justin_in_Oz
not rated yet Jul 06, 2011
The bias of the author is most revealed by the following word usage:
"to the Muslim occupation of the 7th century CE"
They speak nothing of the Babylonian, Persian, Macedonian, Roman, Christian, Turkish or English occupations. Naked political agenda.

Most countries in the world have been in existance for less than 200 years. Israel for less than 65 years. When people project current political stances back for centuries they have overplayed their hand.
Tachyon
2 / 5 (1) Jul 09, 2011
Weather we like it or not there are a lot of evidence supporting the existence of at least three kings of the so called Kingdom of Israel: the Tel-Dan Stela who allegedly makes reference to king David, the seal of king Jeroboam -found in 1904 during the excavation of Megiddo. The Moabite stone that refers apparently to a revolt of the Moabites against Israel, and The Black Obelisk Of Shamaneser III who dates back to 827 B.C. and depicts the battles and other events during the reign of Shalmaneser III. In the inscription, it bares witness to the scriptures with it's mention of the Israelite King Jehu, who lived during Shalmaneser's reign. I know that many times the post may sound like some kind of propaganda, but hey, the evidence is right there, the C-14 dating is there, the obelisks, seals are there, maybe is time to think in a more scientifically way, analyze the evidence and don't throw it away just because it contradicts the mainstream.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.4 / 5 (13) Jul 09, 2011
I know that many times the post may sound like some kind of propaganda
Which it is. You haven't bothered to research your evidence for yourself, or you have and chose to ignore the fact (lie) that in each case your evidence is either hopelessly ambiguous or has been convincingly disproven since you godders first jumped on it.

There was no kingdom if Israel. The habiru were robber barons living in little hilltop villages at the time of David and solomon. They were Canaanite.

My god. Why is this site so infested with idiot Religionists??
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (11) Jul 09, 2011
Hecht Foundation
http://mushecht.h...eng.aspx

"Dr. Hecht, who was known for his Zionist activities, believed that archaeology was an important expression of Zionism and that the discovery of ancient artifacts was proof of the link between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel."

-We can only assume at the moment that dr Hechts money would tend to fund projects which supported his preconceived notions about history?
Tachyon
not rated yet Jul 09, 2011
Pardon me but i'm not a religious person. Are you defining yourself as an idiot religionist or what? Explain yourself please, 'cause I don't beleive that an individual will call himself an idiot...
Tachyon
not rated yet Jul 09, 2011
I also noticed that you have a bible verse in your affiliation and i don't, it may describe you as an idiot Religionist according to...you. But, what are you afraid of? Are you afraid of archaeology? Afraid of the History? Please explain yourself friend.
stanfrax
not rated yet Jul 10, 2011
5 stars ed - the cellar portal door
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.4 / 5 (13) Jul 10, 2011
Pardon me but i'm not a religious person. Are you defining yourself as an idiot religionist or what? Explain yourself please, 'cause I don't beleive that an individual will call himself an idiot...
Then why do you defend bible fiction like one?
Weather we like it or not there are a lot of evidence supporting the existence of at least three kings of the so called Kingdom of Israel
Explain this bullshit please.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.7 / 5 (12) Jul 10, 2011
Tel-Dan Stele
"the written form "DWD" can be rendered both as David and as Dod (Hebrew for "beloved") or related forms. In 1999, Biran, who, for 27 years, led the excavation team, responded to such criticism by saying: "(The)consonants are clearbet, yod, tav, dalet, vav, dalet. It also clearly mentions 'king of Israel'. It was written by an Aramean king who says he killed the king of Israel and killed the king of the House of David, the king of Judah. Those who deny there was a David take the consonants dalet, vav, dalet and say the D and the V and the D represent the word dod, 'uncle' or 'lover'; or even 'doad', which is a 'big vessel'"

-Much more convincing contention. Many even question its AUTHENTICITY.
http://en.wikiped...an_Stele

-My take is that these myths were already in place and the hebrews' enemies knew they referred to themselves in this manner.
cont
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.5 / 5 (12) Jul 10, 2011
Jeroboam II
"Archaeological evidence confirms the biblical account of his reign as the most prosperous that Israel had yet known.

"His name occurs in the Old Testament only in 2 Kings 13:13; 14:16, 23, 27, 28, 29; 15:1, 8; 1 Chronicles 5:17; Hosea 1:1; and Amos 1:1; 7:9, 10, 11. In all other passages it is Jeroboam I, the son of Nebat that is meant."

-So. Herod and Caesar are both mentioned more. A valid (if flawed historical context does not validate fiction.
cont
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.5 / 5 (12) Jul 10, 2011
FICTION - kingdom of david
"The Bronze and Iron Age remains of the City of David, the original urban core of Jerusalem identified with the reigns of David and Solomon, were investigated extensively in the 1970s and 1980s under the direction of Yigal Shiloh of the Hebrew University, but failed to discover significant evidence of occupation during the 10th century BC In 2005, Eilat Mazar found a Large Stone Structure which she claimed was David's Palace, but the archaeology is contaminated and impossible to date accurately.Finkelstein and Silberman feel the archaeological evidence from surface surveys indicates that Judah at the time of David was a small tribal kingdom, although both do accept that David and Solomon were likely historical figures in Judah about the 10th century BC, describing David as a "bandit leader"

-Bandit like the Robin Hood myth, which could plausibly have had the same source; maid marion/mary magdalene, jesus figuratively robbing the rich to fill church coffers?
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (12) Jul 10, 2011
FICTION - kingdom of solomon

"According to Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman...at the time of the Davidic and Solomonic kingdoms, Jerusalem may have been unpopulated, or at most populated by only a few hundred residents, leading to the conclusion that this is insufficient for an empire stretching from the Euphrates to Eilath. According to The Bible Unearthed, archaeological evidence also suggests that the kingdom of Israel at the time of Solomon was little more than a small city state.

"The archaeological remains that are still considered to actually date from the time of Solomon are notable for the fact that Canaanite material culture appears to have continued unabated; there is a distinct lack of magnificent empire, or cultural development - indeed comparing pottery from areas traditionally assigned to Israel with that of the Philistines points to the Philistines having been significantly more sophisticated."
cont
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (12) Jul 10, 2011
"Although both Finkelstein and Silberman do accept that David and Solomon were real kings of Judah about the 10th century BC, they write that the earliest independent reference to the Kingdom of Israel is about 890 BC, whilst for that of Judah is about 750 BC. They suggest that due to religious prejudice, later writers (i.e., the Biblical authors) suppressed the achievements of the Omrides (whom the Hebrew Bible describes as being polytheist), and instead pushed them back to a supposed golden age of Judaism and godly rulers, i.e., monotheist, and devotees of YHWH. Some go further like the biblical minimalists, notably Thomas L. Thompson, who state that Jerusalem only became a city and capable of acting as a state capital in the middle of the seventh century..."

And so this is FICTION:
"The old photographs of the 1970s excavations show a house dating back to the 8th-9th centuries BCE, which is the period of the Kingdom of Israel."

-as this kingdom didnt exist back then.
Yellowdart
3 / 5 (1) Jul 11, 2011
Most of your resources are Finkelstein. I'd argue he's just as biased.

It's simply dramatic flair, and he has pretty much no credibility anymore among archaeologists. In fact, it's quite sad that you would challenge someone with lack of research, while all you do is quote from Finklestein, who is largely an armchair quarterback himself.

William Dever, one of the most respected American archaeologists and a non-theist, is highly critical of Finklestein's work.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.5 / 5 (11) Jul 11, 2011
You happen to have sources yellowfart? Otto posts sources.

Dever:
"He used his extensive background in Near Eastern field archaeology to argue ...for the persistence of the veneration of Asherah in the everyday religion of 'ordinary people' in ancient Israel and Judah. Discussing extensive archaeological evidence from a range of Israelite sites, largely dated between the 12th and the 8th centuries BC, Dever argued that this 'folk' religion, with its local altars and cultic objects, amulets and votive offerings, was representative of the outlook of the majority of the population, and that the Jerusalem-centred 'book religion' of the Deuteronomist circle set out in the Hebrew Bible was only ever the preserve of an elite, a 'largely impractical' reigious ideal."

"More recently, he has become friendlier to the minimalist position, recognizing, "Originally I wrote to frustrate the Biblical minimalists; then I became one of them, more or less."

-Canaanite villager polytheists.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (12) Jul 11, 2011
"William G. Dever, one of Americas best-known and most widely quoted archaeologists, who had been an evangelical preacher, then lost his faith, then became a Reform Jew and now says hes a non-believer."

-Sounds like the learned doctor is a mite confused. This is what real knowledge can do to faith. Hellijuliah.
Tachyon
4.5 / 5 (2) Jul 12, 2011
Actually my references are Dr. James Borland, Dr. Chang Ho Ji, Leon Wood, S.H. Horn, H. Lockyer, A.Hoerth, and many others. Why I defend their claims? Well, I think that just because some findings match some stories from christianity there is no reason for reject them. As I said before, maybe is time to think in a more scientifically way, analyze the evidence and don't throw it away just because it contradicts the mainstream. Remember that usually they are going to reject the "evidence" as a lie and will talk trash about it in a biased way, just because it will put in evidence a different story behind the History they usually told us as the true one. Manipulation of evidence, and what we are usually going to do? Sadly, beleive them blindly.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.7 / 5 (12) Jul 12, 2011
Actually my references are Dr. James Borland, Dr. Chang Ho Ji, Leon Wood, S.H. Horn, H. Lockyer, A.Hoerth, and many others.
Sorry references are not name dropping. References are traceable exerpts like mine or links to specific things which back up what you're saying.

I posted a quote and source which says your hero Dever apparently sides with minimalists like finklestein. Why don't you rebut with something besides bullshit?

The only evidence uncovered in the middle east tells us that david and solomons great kingdoms did not exist. They found a house and a wall. A 4 room house and an undatable little wall. And some scratchings which may say either David or uncle or something.

There is FAR more evidence for the peoples Israel is supposed to have conquered. There is far more evidence to convince us that the Israelites were merely Canaanite bandits with an exaggerated sense of bravado and colorful imaginations.
Yellowdart
4 / 5 (1) Jul 12, 2011
Otto posts sources.


What source? Your just quoting without reference to the source.

Sorry Otto, I don't trust any archaeologist that just outright dismisses ancient civilizations. The refusal to respect Hittite, Assyrian, and Hebrew histories is poor work. Egyptian chronology should line up with these others, just as much as they should line up with it.

If you simply go by Manetho and the Sothic cycle, the chronology becomes highly flawed.

Yellowdart
3 / 5 (1) Jul 12, 2011
I posted a quote and source which says your hero Dever apparently sides with minimalists like finklestein. Why don't you rebut with something besides bullshit?


He's not my hero. I merely use him as an example of someone in the field that is critical of Finklestein. There are others as well.

Finklestein's book is a poor source. It's a departure from even modern timelines, and he's clearly biased against Hebrew history.

Yellowdart
4 / 5 (1) Jul 12, 2011
The only evidence uncovered in the middle east tells us that david and solomons great kingdoms did not exist. They found a house and a wall. A 4 room house and an undatable little wall. And some scratchings which may say either David or uncle or something.


Which is false. The structure is far larger than anything in the nearby city. The "little" walls are 7 meters thick!

Further you have Khirbet Qeiyafa, which is 7 miles from Gath, yet is remarkably distinguished in culture, with the evidence leaning heavily toward Judean. It has also been dated to the 10th century.

Why is that all important? Because the one guy running his mouth about "undatable" is Finklestien. This is the ONLY guy you can use, and your own bias is why you simply accept him.

Rather than actually examining all the evidence, and how it lines up with history yourself.

If this was reversed, and it was one Hebrew arguing against poor dating, you'd ignore him.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (12) Jul 12, 2011
What source? Your just quoting without reference to the source.
Copy/paste in GOOGLE. This is easy. Links in this case are redundant.
He's not my hero. I merely use him as an example of someone in the field that is critical of Finklestein.
WAS critical. I think you need to update your knowledge base as did he.
There are others as well.
And there are many more 'others' which denounce bible fiction. Prove me wrong or stop posting nonsense.
he's clearly biased against Hebrew history.
I dont believe hes clearly that, although your buddy Dever the preacher cum reformed jew cum ? clearly was at certain periods in his life. This has changed as he has evolved into a denier.
Further you have Khirbet Qeiyafa, which is 7 miles from Gath, yet is remarkably distinguished in culture, with the evidence leaning heavily toward Judean. It has also been dated to the 10th century.
Source? Here, I'll give you one:
http://en.wikiped..._Qeiyafa
cont
Yellowdart
1 / 5 (1) Jul 12, 2011
Copy/paste in GOOGLE. This is easy. Links in this case are redundant.


Then you are subject to the same effort, now aren't you?
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.5 / 5 (10) Jul 12, 2011
Religionists put statements like this into the wiki article:

"Khirbet Queiyafa may be the first Judean city built in the late 10th century period traditionally ascribed to an Israelite kingdom governed from Jerusalem by Kings David and Solomon..."

-despite the fact that it clearly states:

"The Philistine city of Gath, located seven miles west, has been demonstrated to have different pottery types..."The finds have not yet established who the residents were," says Aren Maeir..."

Hmmm. Phoenician Gath seems to be well within the confines of traditional Judah:
http://maps.googl...,34.9575
http://en.wikiped..._830.svg

cont
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.5 / 5 (11) Jul 12, 2011
Lets see, random comments:

"The University of Haifa claimed that the inscription proved that "the Kingdom of Israel already existed in the 10th century BCE and that at least some of the biblical texts were written hundreds of years before the dates presented in current research.

-U of Hiafa- research funded by the zionist Hirsch. Current archeology firmly disputes this claim (see my earlier refs).

Then you are subject to the same effort, now aren't you?
What, you mean GOOGLE one of your dropped names and pick out easily debunked claims at will? That wouldnt be very sporting now would it?

Post a quote - make it a little harder why dont you.
cont
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.5 / 5 (11) Jul 12, 2011
Per the inscription; cooler and less religiously-motivated heads prevail:

"Christopher Rollston of Johns Hopkins University accepts that Israel had a monarchy and some sort of a "state" at this point, but warns against attempts to sensationalize the ostracon. He says that the script is not Old Hebrew, but rather Early Alphabetic/Proto Phoenician."

Religionist ebullience:
"The original translator of the inscription, Hagai Misgav believes that the language is Hebrew rather than Phoenician."

-But in a recent presentation, hagai's enthusiasm was dampened by more rational criticism:

"Aaron Demsky argued that this is sort of a lexical list of various titles in society, king, god, judge, etc., and compares it to such lists in other cultures. Believes that it is a scribal exercize.
3) Shmuel Ahituv was more critical of Hagai's readings, and for example, does not accept "seren".

-It just seems to me that the religiously-motivated are the ones more apt to jump to unwarranted conclusions?
Yellowdart
2 / 5 (2) Jul 12, 2011
Religionists put statements like this into the wiki article:


So now your assuming that portions of the wiki article your referencing must be written by religionists?

Is the rest just biased nonreligionists?

And who cares, your random quotes are nothing but misdirection.

Garfinkel and Ganor are from the Hebrew U, not Hafia, and they are the guys actually working at the site. Hafia is not, Finklestein is not.

The archeaology findings certainly are proof that it is not a Philistine city. Khirbet is entirely different from their culture. Where as, not confirmed, it certainly points to Judean.

You can't get around that, regardless of the dating.
Yellowdart
2 / 5 (2) Jul 12, 2011
Which is why Rollston is even forced to admit that there was a monoarchy and a state by then. Finklestien still asserts tribal.

So even the cooler heads aren't inline with Finklestien.
Yellowdart
1 / 5 (1) Jul 12, 2011
It just seems to me that the religiously-motivated are the ones more apt to jump to unwarranted conclusions?


Men are men, they jump to unwarranted conclusions regardless of motivation.

Yellowdart
4 / 5 (1) Jul 12, 2011
BTW, regardless of Dever's apparent back and forth regarding his religion, he's still arguing with Finklestien. From an article in 08

"In one barbed attack, William Dever, a specialist in the regions archaeology at the University of Arizona, accused him of being a fashion-led Post-Zionist who is caught up in a race to push the writing of the Bible into more recent times. This incensed Finkelstein What does he know about me? he says indignantly. Is he with me and my wife in the bedroom?"

http://ntwrong.wo...ientist/
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.5 / 5 (11) Jul 12, 2011
So now your assuming that portions of the wiki article your referencing must be written by religionists?
Indeed I am.
Is the rest just biased nonreligionists?
I'm sure there are other options.
Garfinkel and Ganor are from the Hebrew U, not Hafia, and they are the guys actually working at the site. Hafia is not, Finklestein is not.
Which of course does not mean they are the best qualified to analyse the evidence one way or another. Does it?
The archeaology findings certainly are proof that it is not a Philistine city.
I guess you missed this?
He says that the script is not Old Hebrew, but rather Early Alphabetic/Proto Phoenician."
Und so:
You can't get around that
Except that I just did.
In one barbed attack, William Dever
Devers attack was made long before the article you refer to was written. This article debunks your article as hopelessly biased.
http://ntwrong.wo...ientist/

Too bad. Try again.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (11) Jul 12, 2011
Here is a good article which explains the state of holy land archeology:
http://www.time.c...,00.html

-It mentions one eilat mazar, self-proclaimed discoverer of davids palace, Nehemiah's wall, and a 10th-century city wall in Jerusalem. She claims this wall "means that at that time, the 10th century, in Jerusalem there was a regime capable of carrying out such construction."

Unfortunately she is chief archeologist for "a right-wing Jewish settler organization called Elad...which for the past four years has exerted control over most of the holy city's excavations."

Elads "aim is best expressed in a religious website's 2007 interview with development director Doron Speilman. He gestures toward Silwan, an Arab neighborhood..."Our goal is to turn all this land you see behind you into Jewish hands."

-This is not to mention all the archeologists who have expressed alarm at mazars unwarranted conclusions, which have been debunked.
TheGhostofOtto1923
4.6 / 5 (11) Jul 12, 2011
Which is why Rollston is even forced to admit that there was a monoarchy and a state by then. Finklestien still asserts tribal.
The Hekawi were a 'monarchy'.
http://en.wikiped.../F_Troop

Whats your point? A little hilltop village with 200 residents is about the same thing. Chief Wild Eagle could have been King Saul. This is how outrageous myths get started.
Yellowdart
not rated yet Jul 18, 2011
I guess you missed this?
He says that the script is not Old Hebrew, but rather Early Alphabetic/Proto Phoenician."
Und so:
You can't get around that
Except that I just did.


No, I didn't miss it. Perhaps I should have said, "remaining" finds. The point is that when you take into account the actual city structure, the indication is well related to a typical Judean city.
So my point was that regardless of the debated writing, which is argued over by them, the city itself is not a reflection of Philistine. Now if they find pig bones everywhere, you'd be right.
Yellowdart
not rated yet Jul 18, 2011
Here is a good article which explains the state of holy land archeology:


Why is it a good article Otto? Time lays their side with Finklestein as well. Your still just picking your buddy.
Yellowdart
not rated yet Jul 18, 2011
Really, FTroop? Now your resorting to sitcoms?

Whats your point? A little hilltop village with 200 residents is about the same thing. Chief Wild Eagle could have been King Saul.


Saul was King over 100s of thousands, easily.