Cooperation vs. Competition: Greed is good -- but only a moderate amount

Jul 21, 2011 by Stuart Mason Dambrot feature
Evolution of social cohesion in a model society with moderately greedy individuals. (A) Snapshot of the stationary state (cooperators are in blue and defectors are in red). (B) Time evolution of three population variables (details in the text). The time dependence of the levels of cooperation and agglomeration shows that the emergence of cooperation is based on a coevolution of prosocial behavior and spatial organization. The low level of social instability indicates that changes of strategy and/or location are rare, which corresponds to a majority of satisfied individuals. The initial population consisted only of defectors, who were randomly distributed over the lattice. (c) PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1101044108

(PhysOrg.com) -- Relationships between cooperation, competition, and society have long been pondered by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, economists, philosophers, and mathematicians. While (as might be expected) a range of conclusions have been reached, one factor that appears to be essential in achieving and maintaining an equitable distribution of human well-being is social cohesion – that is, a societal infrastructure characterized by high levels of cooperation and a large number of social ties between members of the population. At the same time, however, individual self-interest appears to be inversely related to – and indeed often leads to a breakdown of – social cohesion. As researchers in Switzerland have recently found, however, a moderate level of greed can actually establish a framework in which cooperation and agglomeration (grouping) flourish and societal cohesion prevails.

Dr. Carlos P. Roca and Prof. Dirk Helbing, Chair of Sociology, Modeling and Simulation at ETH Zurich, (Prof. Helbing also of the complexity research-focused Santa Fe Institute in New Mexico), studied a minimalist model of with very low-information assumptions. In their Public Goods Games-based model, subjects aim to satisfy their aspirations according to a self-interest trait that the researchers call greediness. (Public Goods Games, or PGGs, exemplify the joint but discretionary contribution to a common good.)

One key finding is that Roca and Helbing’s model relies solely on individuals referencing own past experience – a key finding that obviates the variables typically considered in similar research, including greenbeard effects (which would allow subjects to distinguish favorable neighborhoods from unfavorable ones in advance) along with other mechanisms that are known to support cooperation, such as future forecasts, reputation, or punishment.

Cooperation vs. Competition: Greed is good -- but only a moderate amount
Definition of Public Goods Games (PGGs) on networks. (c) PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1101044108

Addressing the role of greenbeard effects – a process actively debated by evolutionary biologists – Roca points out that these seem to be far less widespread than cooperation. “On the other hand,” he adds, “there is a fairly good agreement now on the fact that stable cooperation requires some kind of cooperator assortment. Many models and mechanisms proposed to date can account for that assortment of cooperators, but they usually imply some identification of others' behavior, which in the end leads to some kind of greenbeard effect. One of the main points of our model is that it can explain cooperation with absolutely no knowledge of others' behavior, so it offers a solution for this issue.”

That said, Roca stresses that their results imply that greenbeard effects are not necessary for cooperation. “People, by observing their own performance instead of others' profits and behavior, can behave cooperatively in an, evolutionarily speaking, successful way. This is of course compatible with the fact that in some particular cases greenbeard effects may exist, and that they can have a role in supporting cooperative behavior – but they do not have to be widespread. In any case,” he points out, “absolute no-exception laws in biology are extremely scarce.”

Roca takes a similar position when considering other factors typically employed in cooperation/ analysis and prediction. “In my opinion,” he says, “the key factor is the decision protocol followed by individuals. We use a self-referential satisficing model” – i.e., one that determines satisfaction by comparing their payoff with their aspiration level – “which yields completely different collective behavior from the one that is obtained with optimizing or imitative behavior. Cooperation is quite difficult to explain if people are strong optimizers or imitators, but not so much if they look to be satisfied to a certain extent.”

That being said, Roca is quick to point out that models cannot prove themselves more correct or wrong than others in explaining a particular phenomenon. What they do show, he explains, is the logical consequences of some basic assumptions and hypothesis.

“In our case – namely the explanation of cooperative behavior – what we need now is more empirical evidence about the way real people decide when facing social dilemma situations. Very probably, it will turn out that there is not a simple recipe that fits all cases, but that depending on the particular situation and conditions the choice model changes – not to mention that the choice model itself has been subject to evolutionary forces.”

Roca adds that another important point is the relevance of social mobility, that is, the way how people establish and change their social connections. “There are quite some theoretical works available which show its potential importance, but there is much less empirical work about it.”

In terms of applications –for example, government, education and other social programs – Roca feels that it’s a bit too early to speak about practical implications. “We need more empirical evidence for the actual choice model followed by individuals concerning cooperative behavior and social relationships. An important issue here is that experiments done to date invariably show that people are heterogeneous – we all do not decide and behave the same way. On the other hand,” he continues, “it does not seem to be too utopian to dream about a well-designed future survey of a population, group or region which identifies key behavioral factors and which feeds a model with good predictive power. The implications then for designing social programs are obvious.”

An intriguing possibility would be an experiment to determine if the model is applicable to predicting behavior in biological colonies (e.g., bacteria or other single-celled organisms). Roca points out that their model would be determinative for such experiments only if those "individuals" such as single-celled eukaryotes behave in the same way the model posits. “We designed the model with the aim of studying human and I am not aware of a possible application to the world of microorganisms – but it’s something that I would be very happy to hear about.”

What they actually have in mind, he notes, is behavioral experiments with humans aimed at obtaining empirical evidence along the directions suggested by the model.” In fact, we have recently performed one experiment in the new ETH Decision Science Laboratory (DeSciL), and we’re preparing the paper for submission at this time. We’d be very glad if our paper sparks interest in the community to measure the way humans decide and choose behavior and form social connections.”

Roca’s sees future research into the decision model followed by individuals focusing more on gathering empirical evidence about how real humans decide rather than on designing more complex or more refined models. “In my opinion, from the standpoint of interdisciplinary physics, it is in this cross-feeding between experiments and modeling where the best approach to societal phenomena lies. Depending on what the experiments show we will refine or rebuild the model.”

In the larger context of game theory, risk analysis and forecasting, Roca notes that “game theory, in particular classical game theory, is based on the idea that humans optimize some kind of utility function. Our results prove that if humans behave in a different way, then the emerging collective behavior drastically changes. The implication for game theory and related disciplines is that as long as we want to have correct predictions, we need to make clear the decision followed by individuals. In the concrete case of problems, satisficing dynamics plus social mobility theoretically seem to be key factors.”

Explore further: A two generation lens: Current state policies fail to support families with young children

More information: Emergence of social cohesion in a model society of greedy, mobile individuals, published online before print June 27, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1101044108; PNAS July 12, 2011 vol. 108 no. 28 11370-11374

4.1 /5 (10 votes)

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User comments : 19

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hush1
2.1 / 5 (11) Jul 21, 2011
1300 worded article. The word 'competition' is used twice. Take comfort in that the word 'competition' has been step (s)mothered.
A pathogen is a life form that can only survive by causing disease.
Competition is a pathogen. America continues to digress.
ArtflDgr
3 / 5 (2) Jul 21, 2011
yes...
they are 100% correct IF their base model is a stagnant dynastic society of fixed classes in harmony (confucian)
Deadbolt
2.6 / 5 (5) Jul 21, 2011
Greed includes taking money from people to support the things you want done.

Cooperation needs to be voluntary, because systems that try to force things implode eventually.

Cooperation is the best, but only when it's in the interests of the participants.
that_guy
5 / 5 (4) Jul 21, 2011
What I'm reading here - and I agree with it - is that a moderate amount of greed and self interest is good, just as long as you are not so greedy as to constantly act against the greater good for your own good.

It makes a lot of sense. If you act in your own self interest and motivation but temper it when you are negatively impacting others, you impart the greatest good, as well as avoid disenfranchising those who you could potentially harm by your excessive greed.

Enron, MCI, the phone monopoly that Bell had, etc.
that_guy
5 / 5 (2) Jul 21, 2011
Greed includes taking money from people to support the things you want done.

Cooperation needs to be voluntary, because systems that try to force things implode eventually.

Cooperation is the best, but only when it's in the interests of the participants.


Greed is about doing things so that you benefit the most. You may want things done for a variety of reasons that do not need to include greed. If you take money from people to support things that you want done for reasons of greed, it won't necessarily benefit anyone but you.

If everyone works together for the greater good, then in essence, everyone is doing what is in their own self interest - because everyone else is doing a part that is in everyone elses self interest.

Cooperation needs to be voluntary - What exactly does this statement have to do with this article?

I mean, I don't see anything exactly wrong with what you're saying except that your statements don't really tell us what you're trying to say.
Vendicar_Decarian
2 / 5 (8) Jul 21, 2011
"Greed includes taking money from people to support the things you want done." - DeadTard

No it doesn't.

But altering the definition of words to protect one's ideology is a sure sign of corruption and desperation.

astro_optics
2 / 5 (8) Jul 21, 2011
Communist garbage!
Pete1983
4.2 / 5 (5) Jul 22, 2011
@Vendicar - Deadbolt wasn't saying "Greed is", he was suggesting that "Greed includes".

Also I would have to agree, greed DOES include taking money from people to support the things you want done - such as having more money, for more power!

I'd be completely on your side Vendicar if he'd said "greed is", but he didn't.

Also, @astro - Nice one! You're obviously a great thinker, because any suggestion that capitalism perhaps isn't perfect, you instantly say "Communist!". Well done! Pavlov would be so proud of your master.
Vendicar_Decarian
2 / 5 (8) Jul 22, 2011
"Deadbolt wasn't saying "Greed is", he was suggesting that "Greed includes". - Pete

Clearly it doesn't.

"Also I would have to agree, greed DOES include taking money from people to support the things you want done - such as having more money, for more power!" - Pete

Then you are lying to yourself.

From the Oxford dictionary

Greed Definition: intense and selfish desire for something, especially wealth, power , or food.

Vendicar_Decarian
2 / 5 (8) Jul 22, 2011
"Communist garbage!" - AstroTard

Lying Libertarian/Randite gutter filth.
Pete1983
5 / 5 (1) Jul 22, 2011
Hey Vend,

I think we're on different pages here. I'm not talking about the definition of greed, and the reason I posted before was because I felt Deadbolt wasn't talking about the definition either. The article is discussing how greed can affect social order/cohesion, and I took Deadbolt's "includes" term to be relating to this, not the definition.

If you want to talk "definition", then absolutely the statement is incorrect, and I agree with you. However I feel that isn't what is being discussed here. Also by quoting deadbolt as "deadtard", you were asking for a response, surely!?
Birnleitner
not rated yet Jul 22, 2011
If this discussion thread is any indication, we can expect things to go nowhere but downhill...even faster...
that_guy
2 / 5 (1) Jul 22, 2011
It's all fun and games until the Ayn Rand cultists and the Michael Moore Liberals get into a fight. Actually, I take that back. That sounds quite entertaining. But it must be done in real life.
moebiex
not rated yet Jul 24, 2011
I used to hear about enlightened self interest but the enlightened bit has been dropped in the last 15-20 years or so since the first Greed is Good claim. The need for balance as a self evident truth is hardly acknowledged any more but no less key to developing the networks that success derives from in one form or another.
FrankHerbert
1 / 5 (8) Jul 24, 2011
It's all fun and games until the Ayn Rand cultists and the Michael Moore Liberals get into a fight. Actually, I take that back. That sounds quite entertaining. But it must be done in real life.


Some of the things Michael Moore says is true. I also don't think he was ever a welfare cheat. False equivalency at its finest.
Jimee
5 / 5 (2) Jul 25, 2011
Greed, the sociopaths' playground. You? Die in the street. M/billionaires? Party on!
that_guy
1 / 5 (1) Jul 26, 2011
It's all fun and games until the Ayn Rand cultists and the Michael Moore Liberals get into a fight. Actually, I take that back. That sounds quite entertaining. But it must be done in real life.


Some of the things Michael Moore says is true. I also don't think he was ever a welfare cheat. False equivalency at its finest.


Grow a sense of humor. And Michael Moore is about as strong with the facts as Fox News, so my comparison is valid, even if it doesn't directly contribute to the conversation.
FrankHerbert
1 / 5 (8) Jul 26, 2011
And Michael Moore is about as strong with the facts as Fox News, so my comparison is valid

Nope.

even if it doesn't directly contribute to the conversation.

Yep.

Grow a sense of humor.

You first.
emsquared
5 / 5 (1) Jul 26, 2011
A pathogen is a life form that can only survive by causing disease.
Competition is a pathogen. America continues to digress.

1.) A prion is a pathogen and is not a life form, it doesn't eat or reproduce, not that we needed that distinction to realize you have no idea what you're saying.

2.) By your own ignorant definition, competition cannot be a pathogen as it is not a life-form.

3.)Competition is a manifestation of biological life, a fairly specific set of physical interactions, you truly can't have one without the other.

To try and co-opt the word for some misplaced Matrix-Mr. Smith-esque fail of a monologue only shows you have nothing pertinent to say.

4.) Do you even know what digress means? Because in the context of your meaningless rhetoric, it makes no sense.