Biomolecular computer can autonomously sense multiple signs of disease

July 6, 2011 by Lisa Zyga feature
A simple scheme of how a biomolecular computer works. Image credit: Gil, et al. ©2011 American Chemical Society

(PhysOrg.com) -- In the future, nano-sized computers implanted in the human body could autonomously scan for disease indicators, diagnose diseases, and control the release of the appropriate drugs. Although this scenario is still several decades away, researchers have been making significant progress in developing early types of biomolecular computers.

In a recent study published in , Computer Science Professor Ehud Shapiro and coauthors from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, have developed a biomolecular computer that can autonomously sense many different types of molecules simultaneously. In the future, this sensing ability could be integrated with a vast biomedical knowledge of diseases to enable computers to decide which drugs to release.

“We envision nanometer-sized computing devices (made of biomolecules) to roam our bodies in search of diseases in their early stage,” coauthor Binyamin Gil from the Weizmann Institute of Science told PhysOrg.com. “These devices would have the ability to sense indicators, diagnose the disease, and treat it by administering or activating a therapeutic biomolecule. They could be delivered to the bloodstream or operate inside cells of a specific organ or tissue and be given as a preventive care.”

The development builds on the researchers’ previous demonstration of a biomolecular computer that consists of a two-state system made of biological components ( and a restriction enzyme). The computer, which operates in vitro, starts from the Yes state. In each computation step, the computer checks one disease indicator. If all of the indicators for the tested disease are present, the computation ends in the Yes state, namely it makes a positive diagnosis; if at least one disease indicator is not detected, it ends in the No state.

Previously, Shapiro's group showed that this biomolecular computer could detect disease indicators from expression levels and mutations. In the current study, the researchers have expanded the computer’s ability to also detect disease indicators from miRNAs, proteins, and small molecules such as ATP. At the same time, the computer’s detection method is simpler than before, requiring fewer components and fewer interactions with the disease indicators.

As the researchers explain, sensing a combination of several disease indicators is much more useful than sensing just one, since it allows for better accuracy and greater sensitivity to differences between diseases. For example, they note that in the case of thyroid cancer, the presence of the protein thyroglobulin and the hormone calcitonin can enable a much more reliable diagnosis than if only one of these disease indicators was detected.

Although the ability to detect several disease indicators marks an important step toward in vivo biomolecular computers and programmable drugs, there are still many obstacles that researchers must overcome in the process.

“The biggest challenge is operating such devices in living surrounding like the blood stream or cell's cytoplasm,” Gil said. “Currently we are developing devices that rely on simpler machinery (e.g. no restriction enzyme) or on the cell's own machinery.”

Explore further: DNA computation gets logical

More information: Binyamin Gil, et al. “Detection of Multiple Disease Indicators by an Autonomous Biomolecular Computer.” Nano Letters DOI:10.1021/nl2015872

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5 comments

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Telekinetic
1.1 / 5 (7) Jul 06, 2011
There is already some evidence of cancer in dogs that have had a microchip ID implanted. Even though this would be made of biological components, the body might recognize it as a foreign body. I would think some people would react with an autoimmune response or worse. A very risky business they're proposing. I prefer my diagnostic devices ex vivo.
Justsayin
1 / 5 (1) Jul 08, 2011
Several or three decades if you think in linear terms.
Ramael
1 / 5 (3) Jul 08, 2011
I would think some people would react with an autoimmune response or worse. A very risky business they're proposing. I prefer my diagnostic devices ex vivo.


Autoimmune responses are for the most part fairly consistent. There are materials that may react, and there are some that definitely don't. The issue you mention is easy to work around, given the appropriate research, I wouldn't worry about it.
Telekinetic
1.1 / 5 (7) Jul 08, 2011
There is no consistency whatsoever in one individual's response versus another's. Some patients have nearly died when getting a contrast dye for an MRI. Once I took a Celebrex and had an anaphylactic reaction where my hands became so swollen they looked like catcher's mitts, an inflammatory reaction to an anti-inflammatory. I have very good reason to worry.
knowledge_treehouse
not rated yet Jul 13, 2011
My ideas of how to design body-enhancing nanotechnology: http://episin.blo...-20.html

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