Most complete 3-D map of local universe unveiled

May 25, 2011
The 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) has catalogued more than 43,000 galaxies within 380 million light-years from Earth (z<0.09). In this projection, the plane of the Milky Way runs horizontally across the center of the image. 2MRS is notable for extending closer to the Galactic plane than previous surveys - a region that's generally obscured by dust. Credit: T.H. Jarrett (IPAC/SSC)

(PhysOrg.com) -- Today, astronomers unveiled the most complete 3-D map of the local universe (out to a distance of 380 million light-years) ever created. Taking more than 10 years to complete, the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS) also is notable for extending closer to the galactic plane than previous surveys -- a region that’s generally obscured by dust.

Karen Masters (University of Portsmouth, UK) presented the new today in a press conference at the 218th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.

“The 2MASS Redshift Survey is a wonderfully complete new look at the local -- particularly near the galactic plane,” Masters said. “We’re also honoring the legacy of the late John Huchra, an astronomer at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, who was a guiding force behind this and earlier galaxy redshift surveys.”

A galaxy’s light is redshifted, or stretched to longer wavelengths, by the expansion of the universe. The farther the galaxy, the greater its redshift, so redshift measurements yield galaxy distances -- the vital third dimension in a 3-D map.

The Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) scanned the entire sky in three near-infrared wavelength bands using two highly automated telescopes, one at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins, AZ, and one at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. Near-infrared light penetrates intervening dust better than visible
light, allowing for a more complete survey.

Robert Kirshner, Huchra’s colleague at the Center for Astrophysics (CfA), said, “John loved doing redshift surveys and he loved the infrared. He had the insight to tell when infrared technology, formerly the province of the experts, was ripe for routine use in a big project.”

“John was instrumental in setting up the 2MASS telescope at Mount Hopkins, seeing the infrared side of the project through, and making a much more complete survey of the local universe. It’s a wonderful tribute to John that his colleagues have finished the infrared-selected galaxy redshift survey that John started,” he added.

The 2MRS mapped in detail areas previously hidden behind our Milky Way to better understand the impact they have on our motion. The motion of the Milky Way with respect to the rest of the universe has been a puzzle ever since were first able to measure it and found it couldn’t be explained by the gravitational attraction from any
visible matter. Massive local structures, like the Hydra-Centaurus region (the “Great Attractor”) were previously hidden almost behind the Milky Way but are now shown in great detail by 2MRS.

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finitesolutions
not rated yet May 25, 2011
Where can i buy this map? Or how to access it?
jscroft
4.2 / 5 (5) May 25, 2011
I'm pretty certain this is it: http://www.ipac.c...dex.html
omatumr
1.5 / 5 (22) May 25, 2011
Karen Masters (University of Portsmouth, UK) presented the new map today in a press conference at the 218th meeting of the American Astronomical Society.


Congratulations, Karen ! Even closer to home, right here in the solar system itself, . . .

About 13 years and 4 months ago at the 191st AAS meeting in Washington, DC, Dr. Dan Goldin (NASA Administrator) ordered the release of xenon isotope data from the Galileo probe of Jupiter's atmosphere in 1995.

The data confirmed [1] that Earth's heat source is NOT a ball of hydrogen, but the iron-rich remains of the supernova that gave birth to the solar system, as reported 15 years earlier [2].

1. "Isotopic ratios in Jupiter confirm intra-solar diffusion", Meteoritics and Planetary Science 33, A97, 5011 (1998).

http://www.lpi.us...5011.pdf

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
El_Nose
4.5 / 5 (16) May 25, 2011
OMATUMR

-- You can't send links to your own papers!!!!!!

and if you are going to send a link -- have it link to the page that holds the link to the paper instead of straight to the paper itself to add credibility to trying to at least seem that someone impartial voted your paper worthy of acceptance...

Dude your paper refernces 8 other papers -- of which you wrote 4 -- not very pratical
omatumr
1.5 / 5 (19) May 25, 2011
About 40 years after lunar soil samples were collected in 1969-1972, the global climate scandal began in the fall of 2009 with the public release of e-mail messages and charges that some were trying to "manipulate the science, so that their viewpoints are the only ones that reach the policymakers."

www.cbsnews.com/8...383.html

Evidence of solar mass fractionation across isotopes of the two heaviest noble gases, Kr (element #36) and Xe (element #54), in lunar soils collected in 1972 are shown here:

www.omatumr.com/D...ata1.htm

The average solar mass fractionation, measured across the nine stable isotopes of xenon, are 3.5% per mass unit. This corresponds to nine-stages of mass-dependent fractionation.

Nine-stages (9-stages) of mass-dependent fractionation enriches the H/Fe ratio (at the top of the photosphere by ~73,594,629 (56^9x0.5 = 56^4.5).

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
Former NASA PI for Apollo
omatumr
1.8 / 5 (16) May 25, 2011
OMATUMR

-- You can't send links to your own papers!!!!!!

and if you are going to send a link -- have it link to the page that holds the link to the paper instead of straight to the paper itself to add credibility to trying to at least seem that someone impartial voted your paper worthy of acceptance...

Dude your paper refernces 8 other papers -- of which you wrote 4 -- not very pratical


Thanks, El_Nose.

Is it okay to cite papers in Science and Nature that first published evidence our Sun is not a ball of Hydrogen?

"Mass fractionation and isotope anomalies in neon and xenon," Nature 227, 1113-1116 (1970).

"Xenon in carbonaceous chondrites", Nature 240, 99-101 (1972)

"Xenon record of the early solar system", Nature 262, 28-32 (1976)

"Strange xenon, extinct super-heavy elements, and the solar neutrino puzzle", Science 195, 208-209 (1977)

"Isotopes of tellurium, xenon and krypton in the Allende meteorite retain record of nucleosynthesis", Nature 277, 615-620 (1979)
that_guy
5 / 5 (2) May 25, 2011
So, I learned a lesson today. I downloaded this map and ran off to sight see in the fornax cluster. And you know what happened? it was all 10 million lightyears away from where the map said it would be. I had to make a hard right hand turn and backtrack all that way. This isn't a map of the local area. This is a map of what the local area looks like from a single point in space. Those guys never took into account the movement of the galaxies since the light was emitted hundreds of millions of years ago. What a waste of my day off.
yyz
3.9 / 5 (7) May 25, 2011
"Where can i buy this map? Or how to access it?"

The link above by jscroft is to an earlier work. Here's a link to the image & caption: http://news.softp...r-2.jpg/

@guy, you sure you weren't in the Coma Cluster? :^)
jscroft
1 / 5 (1) May 25, 2011
@yyz: Sweet! Thanks for the correction.
yyz
5 / 5 (1) May 25, 2011
@jscroft, it's neat compare the two images side-by-side(but the projection chosen for each map differs[new map has the plane of the galaxy running horizontal along the central plane] and makes this not so simple!).
jscroft
3 / 5 (2) May 25, 2011
Yah, that IS cool. Astonishing the amount of work represented by those two images, isn't it?
woofwoofwoofoioioi
not rated yet May 26, 2011
It confirms my predicts - the universe is definitely shaped like a Sherrin. Beyond any doubt!
Cynical1
5 / 5 (1) May 26, 2011
It needs a "you are Here" caption pointer.
El_Nose
5 / 5 (1) May 27, 2011
Ahh the "you are here " would e the dead centre of the map --- by definition we ( humans) took the picture so we would be in the center looking out
TheRedComet
3 / 5 (6) May 27, 2011
omatumr
So you get your news from CBS the wonderful people that lied about Vietnam, The relationship between tobacco and cancer. They had Bernard Goldberg in there employment for 28 years ya this is where I would get my news from.

Lets talk about the leak that happened. Someone hacked in to the CRU at the University of East Anglia they used a word filter in order to take their work out of context and then made it public. This is your irrefutable evidence get real who has the most to lose by climate change and the most to gain by discrediting it Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil!!!
omatumr
1.9 / 5 (9) May 27, 2011
omatumr
So you get your news from CBS


Did you overlook the research papers cited above?

1. "Isotopic ratios in Jupiter confirm intra-solar diffusion", Meteoritics and Planetary Science 33, A97, 5011 (1998).

2. "Mass fractionation and isotope anomalies in neon and xenon," Nature 227, 1113-1116 (1970).

Etc.

6. "Isotopes of tellurium, xenon and krypton in the Allende meteorite retain record of nucleosynthesis", Nature 277, 615-620 (1979)

TheRedComet
3 / 5 (4) May 27, 2011
I dont know did you just completely ignore me blowing a huge hole in one of your conspiracy theorys.
TheRedComet
3.7 / 5 (3) May 27, 2011
You believe that the current assessment of the composition of the sun to be false. This is what i go by wouldnt a different iron composition be conflicting with the current solar mass unit.
TheRedComet
3.7 / 5 (3) May 27, 2011
Sorry I have trouble with links and stuff I think its the writer I use the this is what I use was a link to the standard composition of the sun.
that_guy
3 / 5 (6) May 27, 2011
@ redcomet--There are a couple methods to link on physorg. You can drop the 'www' and type out the rest for example. wikipedia.com

I find the comment box freezes if I try to copy/paste, so I have to type it out.
--
as for mr manuels neutron core powered sun - Here's a reason why no one listens to him. The gravity of a neutron star is so high that it converts any material into degenerate matter - a point where thermodynamic laws no longer rule the physical processes.

The 'pressure' that keeps it from collapsing further is quantum in nature, rather than classical. Physics gets kind of twisty-cat. It is the fact that at a certain volume/density of space, two particles (Such as electrons) cannot hold the same quantum energy level. Therefore to compress it further, you have to add enough energy to fill ever higher quantum levels until for example, it takes less energy for the electron proton to bond and become a neutron, which is a new form of degenerate matter.

Continued
that_guy
3.8 / 5 (8) May 27, 2011
So what would happen if a neutron star accreted gas? it just turns it into more degenerate matter (Neutrons) and it shrinks paradoxically.

So, let's say that mr. Manuel is correct about neutron repulsion (Not that they repel, which is true in a sense, but they repel to a degree that makes the sun shine)

The repulsion of the neutrons would have to be high enough that it did not convert hydrogen, helium, etc into degenerate matter, or any element past iron...because it would kick off an endothermic nuclear reaction, and a catastrophic implosion, and presumably a black hole or supernova or both.

But if the neutron repulsion ensures that the neutron star is not dense enough to do that...then it is not dense enough to be a neutron star, and it would be standard matter, under the regular nuclear and thermodynamic laws.

And you don't even need a phd to understand it!

Source
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/degenerate_matter
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/neutron_star
omatumr
1.8 / 5 (10) May 27, 2011
And you don't even need a phd to understand it!


You are right. Probably anyone can grasp evidence that:

a.) Neutrons repel each other.
b.) The universe is fragmenting.
c.) Cores of galaxies and stars explode.
d.) Mass fractionation occurs in the Sun.
e.) The Sun and other ordinary stars make and discards H.

If they take the time to study the data and observations.

Advanced degrees will not help those who ignore the experimental experimental data summarized here [1,2]:

1. "Is the Universe Expanding?" The Journal of Cosmology 13, 4187-4190 (2011)

http://journalofc...102.html

2. "Neutron Repulsion", The APEIRON Journal, in press, 19 pages (2011)

http://arxiv.org/...2.1499v1
Na_Reth
1 / 5 (3) May 27, 2011
I came up with this hypothesis, that blackholes can turn into pulsars.
TheRedComet
4.3 / 5 (6) May 27, 2011
Thanks for the help with the link issue.
But omatumr If I was to take your theory on how the star functions to be true you have still not addressed the missing massive gravity well.
omatumr
1.8 / 5 (10) May 27, 2011
Study the experimental data, if you want to learn, or ignore the data and continue to pretend that the universe is filled with ball of hydrogen.

The choice is yours.
omatumr
1.8 / 5 (10) May 27, 2011
You believe that the current assessment of the composition of the sun to be false. This is what i go by wouldnt a different iron composition be conflicting with the current solar mass unit.


No. The distribution of mass in the Sun is probably much like the distribution of mass in an atom of hydrogen.

The average density of the hydrogen atom in ~0.1 g/cm^3. The density of the nucleus is ~1,000,000,000,000,000 g/cm^3

If you doubt the variable Sun's dominant influence on Earth's constantly changing climate, you may want to read "Super-fluidity in the solar interior: Implications for solar eruptions and climate" [ Journal of Fusion Energy 21, 193-198 (2002)].

http://arxiv.org/.../0501441
omatumr
1.4 / 5 (9) May 27, 2011
This short video on neutron repulsion may also help:

www.youtube.com/w...yLYSiPO0
that_guy
4 / 5 (5) May 28, 2011
I'm not concerned about neutron repulsion. You're not the first one to discover that they don't always stick together.

What I'm concerned about is that in our particle colliders and our fission bombs and fission assisted fusion bombs, we have very reliable data...fact about nuclear binding energies, energy released by fission and fusion, and energy cost to make a neutron, or to fuse an element higher than iron.

So I'm assuming for a moment that everything you say about the neutron is correct (I don't believe that, but for this argument we will agree)

You also say that the sun has a neutron core that powers it, and that all the elements are in stratified layers from hydrogen all the way down to uranium and whatever else to neutronium at the center.

But the fusion of elements past iron are endothermic, and will happen with much greater frequency than electron capture.

Therefore you will have a thick layer of dense collapsing material...
Continued
that_guy
3.4 / 5 (5) May 28, 2011
This collapsing material in between two layers with nominally positive static pressure is extremely unstable dynamically. At best this would cause churn (Mixing) that would make a lot of different elements/materials spectrally visible. We would see strong absorbtion lines in the sun's light for many elements. They could not stratify. This is assuming that it doesn't cause the star to go nova.

In addition, we do know experimentally, and have for a while, the energy difference required for a neutron to be made through various methods such as electron capture, why free neutrons don't stick together without protons, and all the energies involved in standard atomic physics that you describe. This is 1950s territory nuclear physics.

I don't doubt that you measured what you measured, but you didn't consult other scientists for ramifications in their fields - you jumped into those fields with no knowledge. Your theories are ridiculous.
omatumr
2.2 / 5 (10) May 28, 2011
This is 1950s territory nuclear physics.

I don't doubt that you measured what you measured, but you didn't consult other scientists for ramifications in their fields - you jumped into those fields with no knowledge. Your theories are ridiculous.


Professor Paul K. Kuroda was my advisor for a PhD in nuclear chemistry.

www.omatumr.com/a...aphy.pdf

I had a NSF Postdoctoral Fellowship for additional research with Professor John H. Reynolds.

www.omatumr.com/P...desc.htm

I received a Fulbright award for advanced astrophysics study at the Tata Institute for Fundamental Research

www.tifr.res.in/~daa/

I have published >100 peer-reviewed scientific papers.

Some of my co-authors have published >300 peer-reviewed scientific papers.

What are the qualifications of that_guy?
jscroft
3 / 5 (2) Jun 01, 2011
...who has the most to lose by climate change and the most to gain by discrediting it Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil Exxon Mobil!!!


But Exxon Mobil is an ENERGY company. If "alternative" sources really DID represent the next wave, why would they not get in on the ground floor and COOPT these new technologies? Did they get to be a half-trillion-dollar enterprise by stupidly opposing great new ideas?
jscroft
3 / 5 (2) Jun 01, 2011
What are the qualifications of that_guy?


Who cares? A solid argument NEEDS no pedigree. Why don't you address his?
jsdarkdestruction
1 / 5 (1) Jul 23, 2011
Oliver, stop your nonsense and give it up. You are having a hard time accepting your life has been a waste for the most part. It's hard to stop living a lie after a long time of living it(as you should know- you did molest your children for years while keeping it hidden and living the lie of being an honorable/respectable person)