Scientists see solar outburst in exquisite detail

Apr 20, 2011
The following images chart the progress of the CME as it travelled from the Sun towards the Earth on 19 and 20 March 2010. All four are visible light images made with the HI instrument on STEREO. The x-axis of each image corresponds to a distance of 48 million km from left to right. Credit: Anthony Williams / NASA / Richard Harrison

( -- The largest disturbances to the Earth's geomagnetic environment occur when it is buffeted by solar material hurled in our direction by explosive changes in the Sun's atmosphere. These Coronal Mass Ejections or CMEs contain approximately a billion tonnes of ionized gas or plasma and can have a dramatic and damaging impact on everything from satellites to power grids.

Now a team of scientists have used two spacecraft to study these events in unprecedented detail. Graduate student Anthony Williams of the University of Leicester presented their results on Tuesday 19 April at the Royal Astronomical Society’s National Astronomy Meeting in Llandudno, Wales.

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Credit: Anthony Williams/NASA/Richard Harrison

Mr. Williams and his team used the Heliospheric Imagers (HI) on the Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft to examine the of an Earth-impacting CME – seen as sunlight scattered from high density blobs of – as it travels outwards from the Sun. They compared this with the internal structure measured in situ by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft as the CME engulfed the spacecraft and impacted the . This meant that the scientists have for the first time been able to compare the evolution of the CME structure as it races towards the Earth and the internal structure observed as it arrives.

The CME studied was ejected from the Sun on 19 March 2010, when the STEREO A spacecraft was in a position to watch from the side as the CME hurtled outwards towards the Earth.  The structure of the CME was examined in HI images spanning a distance of approximately 48 million km at different distances between the and the Earth.  Analysing the images indicated that its speed was close to 350 km per second, which allowed its time of impact on the Earth to be predicted some 3 days after the initial ejection.

The results indicate that the CME structure evolves considerably on its outward journey, and that the internal structure can be difficult to predict from the images. And there is another key facet to this work – imaging CMEs with like STEREO is an extremely effective means of forecasting their impact on Earth and the large scale disruption that can sometimes result.

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1 / 5 (2) Apr 22, 2011
Thanks for information about studies of the Sun - Earth's heat source. Nothing could be of greater interest to the public.

For those interested in the many ways that our stormy Sun impacts Earth, I recommend:

1. The book: "The Sun Kings: The Unexpected Tragedy of Richard Carrington and the Tale of How Modern Astronomy Began" by Stuart Clark


2. "The Sun's origin, composition and source of energy", 32nd Lunar Science Conf. (2001):" title="http://" rel="nofollow" target="_blank">http://www.omatum....prn.pdf

3. "Superfluidity in the solar interior: Implications for solar eruptions and climate",
Journal of Fusion Energy 21, 193-198 (2002):

4. "Earth's Heat Source - The Sun", Energy & Environment 20, 131-144 (2009);

5. "Neutron Repulsion", The APEIRON Journal, in press, 19 pages (2011);

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel