As we sleep, speedy brain waves boost our ability to learn (w/ Video)

Mar 08, 2011 By Yasmin Anwar
brain

(PhysOrg.com) -- Scientists have long puzzled over the many hours we spend in light, dreamless slumber. But a new study from the University of California, Berkeley, suggests we're busy recharging our brain's learning capacity during this traditionally undervalued phase of sleep, which can take up half the night.

UC Berkeley researchers have found compelling evidence that bursts of brain waves known as " spindles" may be networking between key regions of the brain to clear a path to learning. These electrical impulses help to shift fact-based memories from the brain's – which has limited storage space – to the prefrontal cortex's "hard drive," thus freeing up the hippocampus to take in fresh data. Spindles are fast pulses of electricity generated during non-REM sleep, and they can occur up to 1,000 times a night.

"All these pieces of the puzzle tell a consistent and compelling story – that sleep spindles predict learning refreshment," said Matthew Walker, associate professor of psychology and neuroscience at UC Berkeley and senior author of the study to be published March 8 in the journal Current Biology.

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Electrical impulses linked to sleep spindles loop through memory-related regions of the brain’s temporal lobe

The study found that this spindle-driven networking was most likely to happen during Stage 2 of non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep, which occurs before we reach the deepest NREM sleep and the dream state known as Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep. This shallow stage of dreamless slumber can account for half our sleeping hours, and happens most frequently during the second half of the night, or in the latter part of a period in which we sleep.

"A lot of that spindle-rich sleep is occurring the second half of the night, so if you sleep six hours or less, you are shortchanging yourself. You will have fewer spindles, and you might not be able to learn as much," said Bryce Mander, a post-doctoral fellow in psychology at UC Berkeley and lead author of the study.

As for broader societal ramifications, researchers said evidence that brain waves during the latter part of the sleep period promote our capacity to store fact-based memories raises the question of whether the early school day is optimal for learning.

"These findings further highlight the importance of sleep in our educational populations, where the need for learning is great, yet late bedtimes and early school start times prevent adequate sleep amounts," Mander said.

On average, adults spend one-third of their lives sleeping. Yet, no scientific consensus has been reached on why humans need sleep, Walker said. Previous research led by Walker has shown that a good night's rest helps us regulate our moods and cope with emotional challenges, while sleep deprivation can make otherwise reasonable people emotionally shaky, indicating a strong correlation between sleep loss and psychiatric disorders.

As we sleep, speedy brain waves boost our ability to learn
Sleep spindles over left frontal lobe indicate refreshed learning capacity

For this latest study, Walker and his team took 44 healthy young adults and subjected them to a rigorous memorizing task intended to tax the hippocampus. All participants performed at similar levels. The group was then divided, with one half taking a 90-minute nap while the other half stayed awake.

That evening, the entire group was subjected to another round of learning. The ability to memorize new information deteriorated for those who had remained awake throughout the day. In contrast, those who had napped not only performed better than the waking group, but actually improved their capability for learning, as if sleep had refreshed their memory capacity, the study found.

Electroencephalogram tests, which measured electrical activity in the brains of the nappers, showed that the more sleep spindles the nappers produced, the more refreshed they were for learning. Furthermore, researchers were able to link sleep spindles to brain activity looping between the lobes of the that house the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex – two critical areas for memory.

"Our findings demonstrate that sleep may selectively seek out and operate on our systems to restore their critical functions," Walker said.

"This discovery indicates that we not only need sleep after learning to consolidate what we've memorized, but that we also need it before , so that we can recharge and soak up new information the next day."

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User comments : 6

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krierpat
4 / 5 (1) Mar 08, 2011
OK. I'm missing something, right? First they say spindles occur mainly in the second half of a night's sleep. Then they back this up by measuring sleep spindles during a 90-minute nap. Then they use this data to encourage later start for school day? Why don't they encourge naps, which reflects data results.
Skeptic_Heretic
4.8 / 5 (4) Mar 08, 2011
OK. I'm missing something, right? First they say spindles occur mainly in the second half of a night's sleep. Then they back this up by measuring sleep spindles during a 90-minute nap. Then they use this data to encourage later start for school day? Why don't they encourge naps, which reflects data results.

No, they state that it can take up over half the night and occurs most often during the second half of the night.

The average sleep cycle for a healthy human regardless of gender is about 180-240 minutes per deep cycle. Since the "spindle" occurs during stage 2 of sleep, which is before the 3 REM stages, this process can occur as quickly as 15 minutes in for most people.
BillFox
1 / 5 (1) Mar 08, 2011
More and more often skeptic seems less and less like a troll. Nice rebuttal and information for further researching.
Sam_Herzig
not rated yet Mar 09, 2011
So it does pay to sleep.
Skeptic_Heretic
1 / 5 (1) Mar 09, 2011
More and more often skeptic seems less and less like a troll. Nice rebuttal and information for further researching.
I'm not sure where you got the idea that I'm a troll.
tamurphy
not rated yet Mar 14, 2011
While this article doesn't mention it, it's my understanding that all living organisms have dormant cycles, usually synchronized with the diurnal cycle of the Earth. Among other things, this might suggest that analogous processes occur in everything from bacteria to humans.