Image: Einstein's theory fights off challengers

March 24, 2011
Image Credit: X-ray (NASA/CXC/SAO/A. Vikhlinin; ROSAT), Optical (DSS), Radio (NSF/NRAO/VLA/IUCAA/J.Bagchi)

( -- Two new studies have put Einstein's General Theory of Relativity to the test like never before, using observations of galaxy clusters to study the properties of gravity on cosmic scales.

These results, made using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town. Such studies are crucial for understanding the evolution of the universe, both in the past and the future, and for probing the nature of dark energy, one of the biggest mysteries in science.

This composite image of the Abell 3376 galaxy cluster shows X-ray data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the ROSAT telescope in gold, an optical image from the Digitized Sky Survey in red, green and blue, and a radio image from the VLA in blue. The bullet-like appearance of the X-ray data is caused by a merger, as material flows into the from the right side. The giant radio arcs on the left side of the image may be caused by generated by this merger.

Chandra observations of galaxy clusters have previously been used to show that dark energy has stifled the growth of these massive structures over the last 5 billion years and to provide independent evidence for the existence of by offering a different way to measure cosmic distances.

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1.4 / 5 (11) Mar 24, 2011
Dynamic competition between attractive forces of gravity and repulsive forces between neutrons powers the Sun and the cosmos.

The universe expands as the volume of particles increases by a factor of ~10^23 when neutrons from the compact solar core become interstellar hydrogen in the process that powers the Sun and sustains life.

Nuclear rest mass data and space-age data from measurements of solar neutrinos and variations in the abundances of chemical elements and their isotopes in meteorites, planets, the Moon and solar emissions over the past four decades show that solar luminosity, solar neutrinos and the solar wind arise from a series of four reactions, triggered by neutron repulsion in the solar core (

1. Neutron-emission from the solar core
2. Neutron-decay to hydrogen
3. Partial fusion of hydrogen into helium
4. Discharge of solar wind H and He with traces of mass-fractionated heavier elements from the Suns iron-rich mantle. - OK Manuel
1 / 5 (2) Mar 24, 2011
The gold-colored radiation is possibly jet radiation from the galaxy's black hole.

We are slightly angled in relation to the jet's radiation. It causes us to see the jet's radiation away from the galaxy in the direction we see it happen.

It is a logical consequence of that we are almost 90 degree angle above the galactic plane.

There is nothing odious about the displayed image.
2 / 5 (4) Mar 24, 2011
Its just a lens flare. nothing special.
4.2 / 5 (5) Mar 24, 2011
Dr Manuel

What does your hypothesis of a possible stellar fuel cycle have to do with testing Einstein's theory of gravity by tracking matter moving towards a galactic cluster?
5 / 5 (2) Mar 24, 2011
Shootist: As displayed on another thread, omatumr seems to have a problem understanding the difference between dark energy's theorized effects and his neutron repulsion(NR). My understanding of omatumr's NR is that it causes neutron's to split (out of heavy nuclei such as iron) and become hydrogen atoms. omatumr suggests that this proposed reaction is the primary source of energy in the sun and could be the cause of the observed spacetime expansion. IMO omatumr's theory has very little to do with relativity theory and is more an attempt at an alternative solar chemistry to explain various observational results he and others have made. (Hopefully this was a fair assessment.)

On to Abell 3376, the use of dark energy to explain the stifling of galaxy cluster development is important to provide independent confirmation of its effects from redshift data. Curious to see if Moffat's MOG also requires DE to explain Abell 3376.
5 / 5 (2) Mar 25, 2011
These results, made using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, show Einstein's theory is still the best game in town.
Unfortunately, "these results" are neither pronounced nor explained.
Moreover, I can't see any green or red colors in the image. Maybe my eyes are to blame. And that blue is used for the optical as well as for the radio image is not very helpful, either.
And what kind of tests has GR been put to?
What "different way to measure cosmic distances" is referred to?
Chandra observations of galaxy clusters have previously been used to show that dark energy has stifled the growth of these massive structures
How can one _show_ that DE has stifled any growth when the existence of DE is just an implication of an assumed observation (of accelerated expansion)?

It's an unsatisfactory article.

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