Climate change makes butterflies more frequent flyers

February 8, 2011 By Roelof Kleis

Thanks to climate change, butterflies are flying more frequently, further and longer. This makes it easier for them to cope with a fragmented landscape, says Wageningen University doctoral researcher Anouk Cormont in an article in Biodiversity and Conservation.

Over the course of a couple of summers, Cormont tracked in De Hoge Veluwe national park near Deelen airfield. She studied the small heath butterfly, the meadow brown, the heath fritillary and the silver-studded blue. She followed several hundred butterflies for half an hour each, recording their flight paths with a GPS. Correlating these data with produced interesting insights into the possible effects of climate change.

Fragmentation

And this is Cormont's theme: the effects of the changing climate on the distribution of butterfly species in the Netherlands. The fragmentation of the Dutch landscape poses a threat to biodiversity. Habitats are becoming too small or are disappearing altogether. One attempt to stem this fragmentation is the establishment of the Ecological Main Structure. And it turns out that climate change is lending a helping hand, Cormont's research has suggested.

Fair-weather flyers

Butterflies are fair-weather flyers. And climate change will lead to more dry and sunny periods: perfect butterfly weather, in other words. Cormont shows that butterflies do indeed fly more often and for longer periods, covering greater distances, in this kind of weather. This increases their chances of being able to jump from one area to another, and thus their capacity to colonize new habitats. Cormont also examined the butterflies' flight behavior outside their own habitats. "Butterflies then flit around less and fly a straighter course. Because they are in search of a suitable habitat."

The right direction

The last thing this means, according to Cormont, is that the Ecological Main Structure is superfluous. "That would be the wrong conclusion to draw. The potential distribution of butterflies is enlarged by and that is important in highly fragmented areas. But butterflies often have no idea where the suitable habitats are. So you have to steer them in the right direction: by creating linked lines of foliage such as flowery file edges and road verges, for example."

Explore further: Monarchs fly south for the winter

Related Stories

Monarchs fly south for the winter

September 12, 2005

As many as 300 million monarch butterflies are now flying south from Canada and the northern United States to winter in Mexico and Southern California.

England's butterflies are at risk

March 5, 2006

England's butterflies are increasingly at risk, with the number of farmland butterflies declining by 30 percent over the last 10 years, a study finds.

Where Have All the Butterflies Gone?

May 8, 2006

Cold, wet conditions early in the year mean that 2006 is shaping up as the worst year for California's butterflies in almost four decades, according to Art Shapiro, professor of evolution and ecology at UC Davis.

Recommended for you

Research advances on transplant ward pathogen

August 28, 2015

The fungus Cryptococcus causes meningitis, a brain disease that kills about 1 million people each year—mainly those with impaired immune systems due to AIDS, cancer treatment or an organ transplant. It's difficult to treat ...

Genomes uncover life's early history

August 24, 2015

A University of Manchester scientist is part of a team which has carried out one of the biggest ever analyses of genomes on life of all forms.

Rare nautilus sighted for the first time in three decades

August 25, 2015

In early August, biologist Peter Ward returned from the South Pacific with news that he encountered an old friend, one he hadn't seen in over three decades. The University of Washington professor had seen what he considers ...

0 comments

Please sign in to add a comment. Registration is free, and takes less than a minute. Read more

Click here to reset your password.
Sign in to get notified via email when new comments are made.