Scientists identify avoidable breast cancer risk factors

Jan 18, 2011

Many risk factors for breast cancer are well studied and documented. Thus, scientists are sure by now that early first menstrual period, late onset of menopause and a family history of breast cancer are associated with an increased breast cancer risk.

However, neither an individual woman nor medicine can influence whether family members develop or at what age starts - these are risk factors on which we have no influence. Scientists of the German Cancer Research Center in the team of Associate Professor (PD) Dr. Karen Steindorf and Professor Dr. Jenny Chang-Claude, jointly with Professor Dr. Dieter Flesch-Janys of Hamburg Eppendorf University Hospitals, have been searching for risk factors which can be influenced by changes in lifestyle and behavior.

"58,000 women in Germany are diagnosed with breast cancer each year," says Jenny Chang-Claude."Therefore, a key question is whether there are behavioral changes that might help to lower the disease risk. Our study aims to determine the percentage of cases where these avoidable risk factors are responsible."

The researchers focused on aspects such as taking hormones for relief of menopausal symptoms (), physical activity, overweight and alcohol consumption. All these have been identified in prior studies as possible risk factors for the development of breast cancer.

In their current MARIE study, which is supported by Deutsche Krebshilfe (German Cancer Aid), the epidemiologists studied 6,386 female controls along with 3,074 patients who had been diagnosed with breast cancer after the onset of menopause. On the basis of these data, the scientists calculated the percentage of cancer cases that is attributable to a particular risk factor (or a particular combination of several risk factors).

Of the modifiable lifestyle factors, it is primarily hormone replacement therapy and a lack of physical activity which increase a woman's risk of developing breast cancer. and overweight were found to have less influence on . Thus, 19.4 percent of invasive postmenopausal breast cancer are attributed to hormone replacement therapy; 12.8 percent to a lack of physical activity. Both factors together are responsible for 29.8 percent of breast cancer cases. When the investigators took a separate look at the group of patients whose tumors have receptors for sex hormones (hormone receptor-positive breast tumors), they determined an even higher value of 37.9 percent. The study leaders emphasize that these results reflect the situation in Germany with our typical lifestyle and may differ in countries with other lifestyles.

Non-modifiable factors such as family history or age at first and last menstrual period account for 37.2 percent in total of all malignant postmenopausal breast cancers. "That means that two factors which each woman has in her own hands are responsible for a similar number of postmenopausal breast cancer cases as the non-modifiable factors," Karen Steindorf says. "If behavioral changes in these two areas could be brought about, almost 30 percent of breast cancers after menopause could be prevented." Therefore, the DKFZ researchers recommend women to take more exercise and to refrain from hormone replacement therapy, unless it is absolutely necessary.

Explore further: The fine line between breast cancer and normal tissues

More information: Population attributable risk of invasive postmenopausal breast cancer and breast cancer subtypes for modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Benjamin B.E. Barnes, Karen Steindorf, Rebecca Hein, Dieter Flesch-Janys and Jenny Chang-Claude: Cancer Epidemiology 2010, DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2010.11.003

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Breast cancer risk factors differ among races

Apr 26, 2010

A new study finds that factors known to increase the risk of breast cancer among white women have less influence in Hispanic women. Published early online in Cancer, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Societ ...

Vitamin D and breast cancer risk

Apr 18, 2008

A connection between vitamin D level and the risk of developing breast cancer has been implicated for a long time, but its clinical relevance had not yet been proven. Sascha Abbas and colleagues from the working group headed ...

Recommended for you

The fine line between breast cancer and normal tissues

3 hours ago

Up to 40 percent of patients undergoing breast cancer surgery require additional operations because surgeons may fail to remove all the cancerous tissue in the initial operation. However, researchers at Brigham ...

Pancreatic cancer risk not higher with diabetes Rx DPP-4i

4 hours ago

(HealthDay)—There is no increased short-term pancreatic cancer risk with dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) compared to sulfonylureas (SU) and thiazolidinediones (TZD) for glycemic control, according ...

Good bowel cleansing is key for high-quality colonoscopy

6 hours ago

The success of a colonoscopy is closely linked to good bowel preparation, with poor bowel prep often resulting in missed precancerous lesions, according to new consensus guidelines released by the U.S. Multi-Society Task ...

New rules for anticancer vaccines

8 hours ago

Scientists have found a way to find the proverbial needle in the cancer antigen haystack, according to a report published in The Journal of Experimental Medicine.

User comments : 0