Researchers open the door to biological computers

Dec 14, 2010
Genetically modified cells can be made to communicate with each other as if they were electronic circuits. Credit: University of Gothenburg

Genetically modified cells can be made to communicate with each other as if they were electronic circuits. Using yeast cells, a group of researchers at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, has taken a groundbreaking step towards being able to build complex systems in the future where the body's own cells help to keep us healthy. The study was presented recently in an article in the scientific journal Nature.

"Even though engineered cells can't do the same job as a real computer, our study paves the way for building complex constructions from these cells," says Kentaro Furukawa at the University of Gothenburg's Department of Cell- and Molecular Biology, one of the researchers behind the study. "In the future we expect that it will be possible to use similar cell-to-cell communication systems in the human body to detect changes in the state of health, to help fight illness at an early stage, or to act as biosensors to detect pollutants in connection with our ability to break down toxic substances in the environment."

Combining biology and technology

Synthetic biology is a relatively new area of research. One application is the design of that are not found in nature. For example, researchers have successfully constructed a number of different artificial connections within genetically modified cells, such as circuit breakers, oscillators and sensors.

Some of these artificial networks could be used for industrial or medical applications. Despite the huge potential for these artificial connections, there have been many technical limitations to date, mainly because the artificial systems in individual cells rarely work as expected, which has a major impact on the results.

Biotechnology challenges the world of computers

Using , the research team at the University of Gothenburg has now produced synthetic circuits based on gene-regulated communication between cells. The yeast cells have been modified genetically so that they sense their surroundings on the basis of set criteria and then send signals to other yeast cells by secreting molecules. The various cells can thus be combined like bricks of Lego to produce more complicated circuits. Using a construction of with different genetic modifications, it is possible to carry out more complicated "electronic" functions than would be the case with just one type of cells.

The University of Gothenburg research team is headed by professor Stefan Hohmann, and also comprises Kentaro Furukawa and Jimmy Kjellén.

The article Distributed biological computation with multicellular engineered networks, published in the scientific journal Nature on 8 December, was the result of a partnership with two Spanish research teams at Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona. The work forms part of the EU CELLCOMPUT project.

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Quantum_Conundrum
not rated yet Dec 14, 2010
Haven't finished this yet, but I'm immediately left with the question "Why"?

Our electronic circuitry is already much smaller than the cellular level, and transistors will hit the atomic scale in just over 20 years.

For medical purposes we need electronic devices capable of interfacing with cells on the molecular level, just like proteins, histamine blockers, DNA, nutrients, hormones, etc.

We should let the body do well what it does well, and let technology do well what the body doesn't do well.

I would be impressed if they could implant an electronic chip on a bacterium, and press buttons on a keyboard to control it's behavior.
EvgenijM
not rated yet Dec 15, 2010
Our electronic circuitry is already much smaller than the cellular level, and transistors will hit the atomic scale in just over 20 years...

And yet brain cells can surpass computers on some tasks. Furthermore, gaining more experience on how cell communicate and process decision making is always welcome.
Raveon
not rated yet Dec 15, 2010
This is great news, I was afraid that we would have to implant silicon to enhance our biological processor and RAM in the future. Put me down for several TB of DDR preloaded with the Library of Congress when it's available.
lincoln
not rated yet Dec 15, 2010
Creating biologically based IC's is uninteresting and unimportant for understanding how living things behave and "think." Clearly they're already doing it and they don't use the IC model of computation. I'm trying to explore a means of computing based on components that exist in the frequency domain, this being the dual to a position-space based IC design. If anyone knows of work done in this direction please back-channel me at ls@4thquarter.com. Even if you *might* know something, please let me know. I've found nothing so far. Thx.