Astronomy without a telescope - black hole evolution

Nov 29, 2010
The idea that every galaxy of significant size has a supermassive black hole at its centre keeps gaining momentum. So... coincidence? Or are these SMBHs somehow fundamental to the process of galaxy formation? Credit: NASA.

While only observable by inference, the existence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the centre of most – if not all – galaxies remains a compelling theory supported by a range of indirect observational methods. Within these data sources, there exists a strong correlation between the mass of the galactic bulge of a galaxy and the mass of its central SMBH – meaning that smaller galaxies have smaller SMBHs and bigger galaxies have bigger SMBHs.

Linked to this finding is the notion that SMBHs may play an intrinsic role in galaxy formation and evolution – and might have even been the first step in the formation of the earliest galaxies in the universe, including the proto-Milky Way.

Now, there are a number of significant assumptions built into this line of thinking, since the mass of a galactic bulge is generally inferred from the velocity dispersion of its stars – while the presence of supermassive in the centre of such bulges is inferred from the very fast radial motion of inner stars – at least in closer galaxies where we can observe individual stars.

For galaxies too far away to observe individual stars – the velocity dispersion and the presence of a central are both inferred – drawing on the what we have learnt from closer galaxies, as well as from direct observations of broad emission lines – which are interpreted as the product of very rapid orbital movement of gas around an SMBH (where the ‘broadening’ of these lines is a result of the Doppler effect).

But despite the assumptions built on assumptions nature of this work, ongoing observations continue to support and hence strengthen the theoretical model. So, with all that said – it seems likely that, rather than depleting its galactic bulge to grow, both an SMBH and the galactic bulge of its host galaxy grow in tandem.

It is speculated that the earliest galaxies, which formed in a smaller, denser universe, may have started with the rapid aggregation of gas and dust, which evolved into massive stars, which evolved into black holes – which then continued to grow rapidly in size due to the amount of surrounding gas and dust they were able to accrete.

Distant quasars may be examples of such objects which have grown to a galactic scale. However, this growth becomes self-limiting as radiation pressure from an SMBH’s accretion disk and its polar jets becomes intense enough to push large amounts of gas and dust out beyond the growing SMBH’s sphere of influence. That dispersed material contains vestiges of angular momentum to keep it in an orbiting halo around the SMBH and it is in these outer regions that star formation is able to take place. Thus a dynamic balance is reached where the more material an SMBH eats, the more excess material it blows out – contributing to the growth of the galaxy that is forming around it.

The almost linear correlation between the SMBH mass (M) and velocity dispersion (sigma) of the galactic bulge (the 'M-sigma relation') suggests that there is some kind of co-evolution going on between an SMBH and its host galaxy. The only way an SMBH can get bigger is if its host galaxy gets bigger - and vice versa. The left chart shows data points derived from different objects in a galaxy - the right chart shows data points derived from different types of galaxies. Credit: Tremaine et al. (2002).

To further investigate the evolution of the relationship between SMBHs and their host galaxies – Nesvadba et al looked at a collection of very red-shifted (and hence very distant) radio galaxies (or HzRGs). They speculate that their selected group of galaxies have reached a critical point – where the feeding frenzy of the SMBH is blowing out about as much material as it is taking in – a point which probably represents the limit of the active growth of the SMBH and its host galaxy.

From that point, such might grow further by cannibalistic merging – but again this may lead to a co-evolution of the galaxy and the SMBH – as much of the contents of the galaxy being eaten gets used up in star formation within the feasting galaxy’s disk and bulge, before whatever is left gets through to feed the central SMBH.

Other authors (e.g. Schulze and Gebhardt), while not disputing the general concept, suggest that all the measurements are a bit out as a result of not incorporating dark matter into the theoretical model. But, that is another story…

Explore further: Quest for extraterrestrial life not over, experts say

More information: Nesvadba et al. The black holes of radio galaxies during the “Quasar Era”: Masses, accretion rates, and evolutionary stage.

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1.8 / 5 (5) Nov 29, 2010
Fifteen percent of galaxies are in their active stage? Fermi bubbles in our own galaxy, point to a recent active stage. Other AGN's now shown to shut off in thousands of years, rather than millions. Stellar-mass black hole not able to produce observed luminosity via accretion. Many galaxies central region contain new stars. Bigger galaxies with bigger cores, and growing faster. That's it. There is a link.... Galaxies grow from within. Final stage is the giant elliptical.

Paul LaViolette has shown that both matter (nucleation) and energy (photon blue shifting) are likely a function of local mass density. Where is the mass density greatest? Leads to periodic instability of the central core star (not entirely black), which then feeds the central region in explosive outbursts.

Might as well examine the matter now. One day you will have to.
1 / 5 (3) Nov 29, 2010
Neutron repulsion prevents the collapse of supermassive neutron stars into supermassive black hole.

Neutron repulsion also causes neutron-rich centers of heavy nuclei, stars and galaxies to fragment (fission).


Fragmentation of galactic centers is expected from neutron repulsion. Fragmentation of galactic centers is inconsistent with "black holes".

With kind regards,
Oliver K. Manuel
Former NASA Principal
Investigator for Apollo
1 / 5 (3) Nov 30, 2010

Let´s think about the giant energy concentarions of our galaxies centres(they are also called as huge black holes) and how they once flaped from one size larger energy concentarions that locate really far outside the visible universe!

This way they were already far away from each other and the space did not have to expand “inflantionally”.

With time the stars were born out of the energy waves that the giant energy concentrations of the galaxy centres radiate and which have the nature of the atoms. At the same time as the substance and the time of this new substance were born, this energy moved in a space that already excisted and which does not expand or curve!

Our time is extremely slow in relation to the speed of movement in which the substance / energy of the visible universe move in a space that already excists.
1 / 5 (3) Nov 30, 2010
And when the stars began to radiate their energy, the energy started to move as particules in an area between the galaxies ect.

Now let´s think that energy of the visible universe would begin to meet corresponding galaxies
in a 90 degree angle.

Naturally towards those galaxies would hit energy coming from the stars of the visible universe.
So this energy did not once move in an area between the galaxy “seeds”.

In an area between the particules radiating from the stars does not move energy which could hit the particules passing the star!

In an area whre the particules come towards the star this energy moves and it hits towards the photons passing the star and this is how the light bends!

Energy concentarions orbit of movement changes, accelerates or slows down only when the energy of an energy concentration alters faster than normally in the other side than in the other into a less dense energy .
1 / 5 (3) Nov 30, 2010
The Velocity

Let´s think about a ship that is one light second long and moves throuhg the whole visible universe nearly in a speed of light. The time of the ship is so slow that during that time only one second of the ships time passes by!

How many journeys of the ships length does the ship move in one ships second?

The oldest light of the visible universe has moved from the farest destination of the visible universe
towards us and at the same time all the material / energy of the visible universe (also that oldest light) has been able to move during one of our seconds in a similar way as the ship that moved in one ships second truly many times the same journey as its own length is!

Our time is simply so unthinkably slow in relation to that velocity in which all the material / energy of the visible universe moves in a space that allready excists.
1 / 5 (3) Nov 30, 2010
The substance does not alter to an energy. The substance itself is energy.

The substance / The energy alters all the time to a less dense substance / energy.

The substance / The energy alters to a less dense energy in a space that has always existed. The space does not increase! The space does not expand or curve!

The whole concept of expanding space has been pulled out of the hat, because people has believed that the pulling force does exist. There is no such force as pulling force!

The Quarks

The quarks are formed out of energy that alters all the time to a less dense energy. The quarks expand and radiate energy waves. These waves the expading qvarks push themselves away from each other.

The quarks absorb more energy from the particles that move through the quarks. When the expanding quarks push themselves away from each other the energy radiating from the quarks pass and pushing becomes weaker.
1 / 5 (3) Nov 30, 2010
The quarks continue to expand, at the same time they come closer to each other without actually moving towards each other and the pushing strenghens.

An external pressure is directed towards the quarks because more energy from the other atomcores and from those particles that move in an area between the atomcores and radiate their energy towards the atomcores.

The pattern of an atom

The energy of the atomcore alters to a less dense energy. The atom core expands and radiates energywaves that have the nature of electron and particule. Also the electrons and the particules alter to a less dense energy and radiate their energy as waves.

The atomcore absorbs as if it would fill up more energy towards itselef from those particules that pass the atomcores or through the core.

So the particules also alter to a less dense energy and radiate their energy. The particules also absorb energy towards themselves from the radiation of the other particules.
1 / 5 (3) Nov 30, 2010

The electrons continue their journey towards atomcores nearby. They have interaction with the energy waves that they meet. They produce variation of pressure and with confronting energy-wawes new electrons are produced.

These electrons continue their journey towards atomcores nearby etc. After that the energy itself continues towards the atomcore and makes the atomcore to explode in other words to change faster into a less dense energy ect.

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