'Teenage'-galaxies booming with star births

Oct 12, 2010
'Teenage'-galaxies booming with star births
An example of a teenage galaxy. The white contours show the new measurements of carbon emissions, which have led to a drastic reassessment of the gas mass of these young galaxies.

Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute have been studying distant galaxies, which are among the most active star-forming galaxies in the Universe. They form around 1,000 new stars a year – a 1,000 times more than our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The findings have been published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

"The galaxies are located in the far distant universe – when the Universe was 3 billion years old (equivalent to only 20 percent of its current age). It is a period of the Universe when the galaxies were very active, almost teenager-like and out of control", describes Thomas R. Greve, Associate professor in astrophysics at the Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen.

Together with researchers from the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh and Durham University in England, he has studied the distant galaxies using the Expanded Very Large Array, which is an astronomical observatory in New Mexico, USA. The observatory consists of 27 parabolic antennas, each of which have a diameter of 25 meters and can measure radio waves from distant objects. Data from each antenna is combined electronically so that the final measurements have an angular resolution equivalent to a single antenna with a diameter of 36 km and a sensitivity equal to that of a single antenna with a diameter of 130 meters.

"We have measured CO, that is to say carbon monoxide, which is one of the most common molecules in the Universe, after the hydrogen molecule, H2. Using the measurements we have calculated how much gas there is in the galaxy and it turns out there are extremely large amounts of gas in these galaxies ", explains Thomas R. Greve.

Raw material for new stars

Gas is the raw material used by the to form stars. In the galaxies the gas collects in large clouds, which become denser and denser as a result of their own gravitational pull. Eventually, the gas becomes so dense that it collapses into a ball of glowing gas, which forms a new star – the cloud almost ’explodes’ in a cosmic firework display of .

"What is new about our observations is that we have looked at the amount of cold, diffuse gas that is not yet actively star-forming, and what we can determine is that there is more than twice as much gas than previously thought. This means that there is an enormous amount of raw material, which can condense and form new stars ", explains Thomas R. Greve.

The measurements of the morphology of the gas also suggest that these galaxies are not only bigger than we thought, but also very irregular in their shape. It is only much later (several hundred billion years) in their development, after they have undergone their intense star formation that they become the mature, regular, elliptical shaped that we see in our niverse today.

Explore further: Quest for extraterrestrial life not over, experts say

More information: Article in arXiv

Provided by University of Copenhagen

5 /5 (5 votes)

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5 / 5 (3) Oct 12, 2010
'It is only much later (several hundred billion years) in their development, ... '
Excuse me ? Million perhaps ?
2 / 5 (1) Oct 12, 2010
The old universe seems to be getting older very fast. Just the stroke of the pen.

Ignoring the "several hundred billion year old" universe for a moments and thinking about our universe which I have been told is only 14 billion years old - (I am still not convinced about that age) we come to our galaxy which is considerable older than our star and younger than our universe and since Earth is almost half the age of the universe and has life for almost the entire time it has been here well ... I wonder about those lives that have gone before.
1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010

Let´s think about the giant energy concentarions of our galaxies centres(they are also called as huge black holes) and how they once flaped from one size larger energy concentarions that locate really far outside the visible universe!

This way they were already far away from each other and the space did not have to expand “inflantionally”.

With time the stars were born out of the energy waves that the giant energy concentrations of the galaxy centres radiate and which have the nature of the atoms. At the same time as the substance and the time of this new substance were born, this energy moved in a space that already excisted and which does not expand or curve!

Our time is extremely slow in relation to the speed of movement in which the substance / energy of the visible universe move in a space that already excists.

And when the stars began to radiate their energy, the energy started to move as particules in an area between the galaxies ect.

1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
Now let´s think that energy of the visible universe would begin to meet corresponding galaxies
in a 90 degree angle.

Naturally towards those galaxies would hit energy coming from the stars of the visible universe.
So this energy did not once move in an area between the galaxy “seeds”.

In an area between the particules radiating from the stars does not move energy which could hit the particules passing the star!

In an area whre the particules come towards the star this energy moves and it hits towards the photons passing the star and this is how the light bends!

Energy concentarions orbit of movement changes, accelerates or slows down only when the energy of an energy concentration alters faster than normally in the other side than in the other into a less dense energy .
1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
The galaxy centers, giant energy merger trajectories met to go ahead during the movement. They received another blow a lot of energy in waves towards each other. Energy waves which was / is the nature of atoms. and therefore also the nature of new stars.

There is no expanding space.

Just about space who is nothing.

And energyconcentrations who expanding all a time in space who dont expanding.

1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
The Velocity

Let´s think about a ship that is one light second long and moves throuhg the whole visible universe nearly in a speed of light. The time of the ship is so slow that during that time only one second of the ships time passes by!

How many journeys of the ships length does the ship move in one ships second?

The oldest light of the visible universe has moved from the farest destination of the visible universe
towards us and at the same time all the material / energy of the visible universe (also that oldest light) has been able to move during one of our seconds in a similar way as the ship that moved in one ships second truly many times the same journey as its own length is!

1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
Our time is simply so unthinkably slow in relation to that velocity in which all the material / energy of the visible universe moves in a space that allready excists.

And of course the light that moves into a direction in which all the energy / material of the visible universe pushes itself, moves with a fastest speed into that same direction, may it be a hunch faster!

1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
All Stars pushing far away from galaxy centre. Almost same way, what stars expanding. Thats why you dont need dark matter at all. You dont need gravity at all. i mean drawing force, you know. Just about pushing force. Pressure. Changing pressure.

Also planets expanding and pushing far away from galaxy centre. Sometimes faster what Sun and sometimes slower.

Here we have a one forum for that idea.


1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
The planet's location relative to the Sun and the galaxy's center, when hurricanes occur.

The Solar system moves further away from the center of the galaxy. Proportionally everything is expanding.

Occasionally the planet accelerates and slows down in relation to the Sun.

Currently, the Earth is accelerating pace. Galactic center releases massive neutrinos and smaller denser particles = energy particles.

These particles move through the planets. They get hit by energy which the nuclei of atoms that radiate towards each other. This energy makes these particles explode (motion) energy of atoms in its planetary cores.

When the planet is further away from the galactic center than the Sun, particles moving from the center of the galaxy move past the Sun. During which they lose their energy to the Sun’s radiating energy field.

This is why they no longer have energy left for the planet’s core, causing the planets speed to slow down, until the sun passes on the planet.

1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
These particles, still containing large quantities of energy, which they emanate to atom-cores within the planets core when passing by.
Electric charge of the atoms in planets core grows. The movement between atom-cores starts to accelerate, at this stage the particles coming from center of the galaxy get hit by increasing amounts of energy. They explode emanating their energy at planet’s core which accelerates movement of the planet.
Currently the Earth accelerates further away from the galactic center. The particles from galactic center will interact strongly with the atomic nuclei in the earth’s core.

Earth releases a lot of energy.

American East Coast hurricanes are a sign here!

Similar storms have been detected on Jovian planets. Anybody know if Jupiter’s Red Spot gets stronger when it accelerates away from the galactic center ? How about other Jovian planets, at which stage do the storms appear ? Are they then moving away from the galactic center in relation to the Sun ?

1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
They are already found out, Mars have more Methane, when Mars moving faster far away from galaxy centre what Sun?

What about Mars cyclon?

What about Encleladus

"At least four distinct plumes of water ice spew out from the south polar region of Saturn's moon Enceladus in this dramatically illuminated image.

Light reflected off Saturn is illuminating the surface of the moon while the sun, almost directly behind Enceladus, is backlighting the plumes. See Bursting at the Seams to learn more about Enceladus and its plumes."


Enceladus is moving faster far away from Sun, what Saturnus?

1 / 5 (3) Oct 13, 2010
Teening ten molecules on my website, ... pi 10 sphere ...

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