Device reveals more about Mars' atmosphere

Oct 12, 2010
Mars' atmosphere revealed using Professor's device
Dr. John Hoffman designed the mass spectrometer through which soil samples collected at the surface of Mars were analyzed.

Instruments designed by a UT Dallas professor to measure atmospheric components on the surface of Mars have uncovered important clues about the planet’s atmosphere and climate history.

The findings, published in a recent issue of the journal Science, reveal how isotopes have reacted to volcanic activity, water and weathering – thus forming a more complete picture of the current Martian atmosphere.

The NASA mission in which this work was accomplished was the Phoenix Lander, an unmanned spacecraft deployed to Mars in 2008.

UT Dallas Physics Professor John Hoffman, a member of the William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences, designed the mass spectrometer through which soil samples collected at the surface of Mars were analyzed.

Samples of atmospheric gasses were drawn into the instrument during several Martian days, called “sols,” and analyzed to determine the type of gases that comprise the atmosphere.

“The dominant gas is carbon dioxide,” Hoffman said. “We examined these carbon dioxide molecules and measured the ratio of the light to heavy atoms of carbon and oxygen.”

Different mass atoms of an element are called isotopes. By contrasting these isotopes, Hoffman and other researchers could see how the gases were affected by geologic processes on Mars. Previous samples from the Martian atmosphere were analyzed three decades ago during NASA’s Viking program. The precision of those measurements was limited by the technology available at the time.

“The accuracy of the current measurements far surpasses the previous information we had,” Hoffman said. “Obviously, these geologic and atmospheric changes are slow processes, but we now have a better idea of the earlier planetary atmosphere.”

The Phoenix Lander deploys Hoffman's instrument (a silver box near the center of the frame) on the surface of Mars.

Scientists have also studied material from Martian meteorites that have landed on Earth. These data have helped fill in the time scale for the evolution of the atmosphere on Mars.

“These findings are exciting because they show how the of evolved and we can contrast that to our own history here on Earth,” Hoffman added. “We have a more complete understanding of our neighboring planet.”

Explore further: Study reveals immune system is dazed and confused during spaceflight

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

Mars mysteries could be answered through airplanes

Oct 08, 2010

There are regions on Mars where the ground is much too rugged for a rover to explore. Instead, a robotic, rocket-powered airplane could be the ideal way to investigate some of these intriguing but as-yet inaccessible ...

NASA mission asks why Mars has no atmosphere

Oct 07, 2010

(PhysOrg.com) -- NASA this week gave the green light to a mission to Mars that will seek to understand why and how the red planet lost its atmosphere 3-4 billion years ago.

Titan's haze could hold ingredients for life

Oct 08, 2010

Simulating possible chemical processes in the atmosphere of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, a UA-led planetary research team found amino acids and nucleotide bases – the most important ingredients of life ...

Recommended for you

Students see world from station crew's point of view

16 hours ago

NASA is helping students examine their home planet from space without ever leaving the ground, giving them a global perspective by going beyond a map attached to a sphere on a pedestal. The Sally Ride Earth ...

Mars deep down

18 hours ago

Scarring the southern highlands of Mars is one of the Solar System's largest impact basins: Hellas, with a diameter of 2300 km and a depth of over 7 km.

Beautiful morning conjunction

Aug 18, 2014

Sleeping late is one of the simple pleasures of summer vacation. This week, waking up early will be a pleasure, too.

User comments : 3

Adjust slider to filter visible comments by rank

Display comments: newest first

kevinrtrs
1 / 5 (6) Oct 12, 2010
“Obviously, these geologic and atmospheric changes are slow processes,


Herein this assumption lies a lot of bias which could influence the outcome /conclusions reached. Who said these changes happened slowly? What substantiating evidence does he have to come to such a conclusion? Numerous times we've seen just how surprised scientists are at the speed at which geologic changes can occur. Why does he have to assume this?
Sonhouse
not rated yet Oct 19, 2010
What different conclusions would you reach with fast reacting changes? What evidence do you propose to support such a hypothesis? I am not trying to be argumentative, just wondered what you are driving at other than the speed of climate change noted on Earth in the past, which by now is pretty well known. What implications are you hinting at for Mars or Earth?
jselin
not rated yet Oct 26, 2010
Kevinrtrs is a young earth guy so maybe he's thinking young Mars too?