The body's ability to fight infection to be studied by NASA

Oct 29, 2010 By Rachel Hoover

Space shuttle Discovery will bring NASA scientists one step closer to helping astronauts and the public discover ways to battle and prevent serious illness and infection.

When Discovery launches into orbit for its final flight and mission to the , currently scheduled for Monday, Nov. 1, 2010, it will carry a six-member astronaut crew, critical spare parts, and 16 mice that will play an important role in immune system research. Discovery's target liftoff is at 1:40 p.m. PDT, and it is the 35th to the station.

"The goal of our experiment is to discover what triggers and leads to an increased susceptibility to an infection," said Roberto Garofalo, principal investigator of the Mouse Immunology-2 (MI2) experiment and a professor in the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. "We can use our findings to help treat and prevent future astronauts from getting sick, as well as protect people with more vulnerable immune systems here on Earth, such as the elderly or young children."

Research has shown that the immune system is compromised during and after spaceflight. In order to better understand why the body's mechanisms to fight off infection are weakened, scientists will fly 16 mice into space for Discovery's 11-day mission. After they return to Earth and pass a medical examination, scientists will expose them to a (RSV). Worldwide, the virus is a leading lower respiratory tract illness in infants and children and also is now recognized as a significant cause of respiratory illness in older adults. Most people who are otherwise healthy recover from an RSV infection in a couple weeks, while young children, the elderly and those with compromised immune systems, could have severe symptoms that require hospitalization and treatment.

At various times after exposure to the virus, Garofalo's team will collect cells from the mice's lung and nasal tissues and study the cells' genes and proteins to learn how the animals' bodies responded to the virus. Tissues from the mice that flew in space will be compared with the tissues of mice that never left Earth, but also were exposed to the virus.

In the weeks leading up to launch, project teams from NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., and the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston prepared the MI2 experiment for flight at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Florida. A few hours before launch, the mice will be placed into the Ames-developed Animal Enclosure Modules, habitats in the shuttle's middeck lockers, where they will remain during flight.

"Once in orbit, astronauts will perform daily checks on the health and well-being of the mice," said Nicki Rayl, project manager for the MI2 experiment at Ames. "STS-133 is the 25th flight of this unique hardware, which was designed to provide them with plenty of food and water, keep them healthy during launch, flight and return to Earth."

The Mouse Immunology-2 experiment is managed by the International Space Station Research Project Office at Ames along with Garofolo's team at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. The Ames Flight Systems Implementation Branch and Space Biosciences Division developed and implemented the MI2 payload, which was funded by the Advanced Capabilities Division in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at ’s Headquarters, Washington.

The first Mouse Immunology experiment flew aboard STS-131 in April 2010 to study the influence of microgravity on mouse immune systems. The experiment's principal investigator, Millie Hughes-Fulford, former NASA astronaut and professor in the Departments of Medicine and Urology at the University of California, San Francisco studied the immune system's response to a new infection or re-infection during spaceflight. Garofalo’s experiment is complementary to the STS-131 experiment but will focus specifically on how the responds to an infection following spaceflight.

Explore further: Bacteria manipulate salt to build shelters to hibernate

add to favorites email to friend print save as pdf

Related Stories

NASA Send Cells Into Space

Apr 02, 2010

(PhysOrg.com) -- NASA scientists are sending three fundamental life science experiments onboard space shuttle Discovery in hopes of better understanding exactly how spaceflight affects cell growth and how cells fight off ...

Microscopic passengers to hitch ride on space shuttle

Aug 24, 2006

When space shuttle Atlantis rockets into space later this week, it will take along three kinds of microbes so scientists can study how their genetic responses and their ability to cause disease change.

Space shuttle mission Web coverage offered

Oct 18, 2007

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration said it will provide a TV webcast and podcasts of the STS-120 mission to the International Space Station.

Recommended for you

Giant crater in Russia's far north sparks mystery

7 hours ago

A vast crater discovered in a remote region of Siberia known to locals as "the end of the world" is causing a sensation in Russia, with a group of scientists being sent to investigate.

NASA Mars spacecraft prepare for close comet flyby

8 hours ago

NASA is taking steps to protect its Mars orbiters, while preserving opportunities to gather valuable scientific data, as Comet C/2013 A1 Siding Spring heads toward a close flyby of Mars on Oct. 19.

Bacteria manipulate salt to build shelters to hibernate

Jul 25, 2014

For the first time, Spanish researchers have detected an unknown interaction between microorganisms and salt. When Escherichia coli cells are introduced into a droplet of salt water and is left to dry, b ...

How do we terraform Venus?

Jul 25, 2014

It might be possible to terraform Venus some day, when our technology gets good enough. The challenges for Venus are totally different than for Mars. How will we need to fix Venus?

Biomarkers of the deep

Jul 25, 2014

Tucked away in the southwest corner of Spain is a unique geological site that has fascinated astrobiologists for decades. The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) in Spain's Río Tinto area is the largest known deposit ...

User comments : 0